Stansy is a genre of medievalpoetry, which remained popular in the poetry of later eras. Various writers created stanzas, Russian poets often turned to this poetic form.
How did the stanzas
The birthplace of the stations is Italy.The very word "stansy" is translated from Italian as "room", or "stop". Stanza in Italian Renaissance architecture is a room in which they signed papers or held important meetings, for example, Stanza della Senyatura. The creation and decoration of this room was attended by the famous Raphael Santi.
In the literature stanzas are stanzas, each ofwhich has its own special meaning, that is, each new stanza does not continue the previous one, but is a complete whole. One stanza expresses any one idea, but in the whole poem the stanzas are organically connected with each other and all together create an artistic whole.
Stansy in medieval literature
So, Italy was the birthplace of the stans, and there they are more oftenall were used to glorify representatives of the nobility. For the first time the stanzas was written by Angelo Poliziano, an Italian poet who lived in the 15th century, and they were dedicated to Giuliano Medici. In Italian literature, stanzas - this poem, consisting of eight stanzas, having a rhyme.
George Gordon Byron is a great British poet,who was a contemporary of Pushkin. Byron's poetry was dedicated to the pride of the human spirit, the beauty of love. Byron took part in the uprising of the Carbonarians and Greeks, and wrote his Stanzas in 1820.
There are also Byron's stanzas, dedicated to Greece andbeautiful corners of Greek nature. The main theme of his stanzas is love for the beautiful Greek woman and the struggle of Greece for freedom and independence. Byron's poetry had a great influence on Pushkin's work.
Stanza in Russian poetry
Stansy is a genre that began in Russian poetryactively develop in the eighteenth century. In Russian literature this is a small poem that consists of a quatrain, and most often its size is a four-legged iambic. Stanza in Russian literature is most often devoted to the love of the lyrical hero to the young girl, but sometimes they were associated with socio-cultural breakthroughs in the life of the country, such as Pushkin's stanzas.
Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin wrote his famous "Stanza" in the autumn of 1827. In this work, which was discussed many times, the image of Peter the Great, the famous Russian emperor, appears.
Появление этого стихотворения связано с началом the reign of Nicholas I. Pushkin, whose "Stanza" became a praise of the imperial power, hoped that this monarch would change the life of the common people for the better. For his part, Nicholas the First hoped that Pushkin would help him calm the mood of the youth. He offered Pushkin help in changing the system of education and education.
"Stanza" compare two monarchs:Peter the Great and his great-grandson Nikolai the First. Ideal for Pushkin is Peter the Great. This king was a real worker, who did not shun any occupation. He was both a seafarer, an academician, and a carpenter. The days in which Peter the First ruled, according to Pushkin, made Russia a great power. Although this king overshadowed the beginning of his existence by the executions of those who were not wanted, but subsequently with his help Russia was able to become great. Peter the First constantly studied and forced to study others, he worked hard for the glory of his country.
Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, whose "Stanza" isbecame a famous work in Russian literature, calls on the Emperor Nicholas I to repeat the feat of Peter the Great and to elevate Russia to a new level of development.
In addition to the "Stans", about the same time, the poetwrote and poems "Friends" and "The Prophet". It was assumed that all three of these poems form a single cycle and will be published in 1828 in the journal Moskovsky Vestnik. But Pushkin's hopes were not justified: the emperor forbade the publication of his poems, as Pushkin was informed by the chief of the Russian police Benckendorff.
Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov is one of the most outstanding creators in Russian poetry. What is the stanza, Lermontov learned after acquaintance with English poetry, in particular, with the work of Byron.
Stanzas act as Lermontov's smallpoems in which genre features are not defined. In 1830-1831 Lermontov wrote six poems, which in form can be defined as stanzas. Their main theme is romantic love, in poems the young man turns to his beloved. Lermontov, whose stanzas arose under the influence of the work of John Byron "Stanza to Augusta", influenced the literary tradition of writing such works after him.
Lermontov's poems are filled with sadnessthe main character who sees the fuss and misfortune of his earthly life, dreams of a different life. The poet writes about his loneliness in this world, compares himself with a cliff that can withstand the onslaught of wind and storms, but can not protect the flowers growing on the rock from them. Mikhail Lermontov, whose stances fully express the world outlook of the poet, became a model for many other creators of Russian literature.
Innocent Fedorovich Annensky is considered a "swan"Russian literature ". Having discovered a poetic talent at the age of 48, Innokenty Annensky became an outstanding literary creator. His poem "Stansy Nights" became a notable phenomenon in the then literature. Its content is the expectation of meeting with the beloved, who must come in the darkness of the night. Many researchers believe that his poetry shares similarities with the poetry of the Impressionists, in particular, with the paintings of Claude Monet.
Sergey Aleksandrovich Yesenin became the representativenew Russian literature, which took the side of Soviet power. He fully supported the October Revolution, and all his works are aimed at supporting the then emerging Soviet system, supporting the actions of the Communist Party. But at the same time they have their own characteristics.
Being in Baku, in Azerbaijan, the poet beganwrite "Stanza". Yesenin himself mentions this in a poem: he preferred to leave Moscow because of misunderstandings with the police. But, recognizing their shortcomings ("sometimes I am drunk") Yesenin also writes that his mission is not to sing girls, stars and the moon, but the name of Lenin and Marx. He denies the influence of heavenly powers on human society. People should build everything themselves on the ground, the poet believes, and for this purpose it is necessary to exert all the industrial power.
Yesenin did not accidentally give his workthe name "Stanza", a poem that clearly echoes Pushkin's "Stanzas". Yesenin was a fan of Pushkin's creativity, pinned flowers to his monument. But Esenin believed that stanzas - this is not a form of love lyrics, but a way to express one's civic position.
Yesenin's "Stanzas" did not win approval from the partyfigures who wanted to see Yesenin as a completely party poet devoted to the ideals of the revolution. But this poem marks a turn of the poet from "Moscow tavern" to the new Soviet reality. So many critics believed. Enthusiastic workers of the magazine "Krasnaya Nov '" reacted to this work, who thought that Yesenin was finally becoming his real, Soviet poet. The correct direction of the poet's work was considered a consequence of the beneficial influence of the climate of the city of Baku, where he lived, and friendship with Peter Ivanovich Chagin.
Joseph Aleksandrovich Brodsky was an outstandingRussian poet, who equally spoke Russian and English. He became a Nobel laureate at a relatively young age - at 47 years old.
A native of St. Petersburg, he lived first in Russia,then in the United States of America. In all his poems Petersburg flashes, especially this city is mentioned in the famous work "Stanza to the city".
Numerous studies of the book "New stanzas toAugusta "show that this lexicon often uses such lexical units as the names of Marie and Telemac, as well as the words" madam "," dear "," friend ". The main addressee of "New Stans to Augusta" is a beloved who is waiting for her friend. All tender appeals of the poet are addressed to it. According to Brodsky's poems, one can judge what stanzas are in literature. Brodsky's central character is a lyrical hero, and the motif of exile is also important for his poetry.
The collection "New Stanza to Augusta" was dedicated toMaria Basmanova. It features not only images of lyrical characters, but also objects. They have a symbolic meaning. The lyrical hero gives his girl a ring with turquoise. Turquoise is a stone made from the bones of people. The hero asks the beloved to wear this stone on the ring finger.
In the poem "Slice of the honeymoon" the author explores the sea vocabulary. His lover's name is Marina, so he pays special attention to the marine theme.
Стихотворение «Ночной полет» посвящено travel in the belly of the plane, and the poet admits that he always wanted to go to Central Asia. Traveling in an airplane for him has a double meaning - it's a flight into another life, and a journey to resurrection. The poet seeks a different reality, where there will be no misery and suffering.