Genres of lyrics originate in syncretictypes of art. In the foreground are personal feelings and feelings of a person. Lyrics - the most subjective kind of literature. His range is wide enough. Lyrical works are characterized by laconicism of utterance, the ultimate concentration of thoughts, feelings and experiences. Through various genres of poetry, the poet embodies what excites him, upsets or pleases him.
The term itself comes from the Greek word lyra(a kind of musical instrument). Poets of the period of antiquity performed their works to the accompaniment of lyre. The lyrics are based on the experiences and thoughts of the main character. He is often identified with the author, which is not entirely true. The character of the hero is often revealed through actions and actions. The direct author's characteristic plays a large role. An important place is given to the description of appearance. The monologue is most often used. Dialogues are rare.
The main means of expression is thinking.In some works the genres of the epic, lyric and drama are intertwined. In lyrical works there is no detailed plot. In some, there is an internal conflict of the hero. There is also a "role" lyrics. In such works the author plays the roles of different persons.
Genres of lyrics in literature are closely intertwined with other types of art. Especially with painting and music.
Types of lyrics
As a literary genus, the lyrics were formed inAncient Greece. The highest bloom occurred in ancient Rome. Popular ancient poets: Anacreon, Horace, Ovid, Pindar, Sappho. In the Renaissance, Shakespeare and Petrarch stand out. And in the 18-19 centuries, the world was shocked by the poetry of Goethe, Byron, Pushkin and many others.
Varieties of lyrics as a kind:by expressiveness - meditative or suggestive; on the subject - landscape or urban, social or intimate, etc .; in terms of key - minor or major, comic or heroic, idyllic or dramatic.
Types of lyrics: poetic (poetry), dramatized (role-playing), prosaic.
Genres of lyrics in literature have several classifications. Most often, such essays are distributed by subject.
- Civic. Social and national issues and feelings come to the fore.
- Intimate. Transmits personal experiences experienced by the protagonist. It is divided into the following types: love, friendship, family, erotic lyrics.
- Philosophical. It embodies the awareness of the meaning of life, being, the problems of good and evil.
- Religious. Feelings and experiences of higher and spiritual.
- Landscape. Transmits the hero's thoughts about natural phenomena.
- Satirical. Exposing human and social vices.
Varieties by genre
Genre lyrics varied. It:
1. The anthem is a lyrical song expressing a festively elevated feeling, formed from some kind of good event or exceptional experience. For example, “The Anthem of the Plague” by A. S. Pushkin.
2. Invective. It means a sudden exposure or satirical ridicule of a real person. This genre is characterized by semantic and structural bi-duality.
3. Madrigal.Initially, these were poems depicting rural life. After several centuries, the madrigal is significantly transformed. In the 18th and 19th centuries, these were free-form lyric works that glorify the beauty of a woman and contain a compliment. The genre of intimate poetry is found in Pushkin, Lermontov, Karamzin, Sumarokov and others.
4. Oda - the song of praise.This poetic genre, finally formed in the era of classicism. In Russia, this term was introduced by V. Trediakovsky (1734). Now it is already remotely connected with classical traditions. It is a struggle of conflicting style trends. Known solemn odes of Lomonosov (developing a metaphorical style), anacreontic - Sumarokov, synthetic - Derzhavina.
five.Song (song) is one of the forms of verbal and musical art. There are lyrical, epic, lyre-dramatic, lyre-epic. Lyric songs are not peculiar narration, presentation. They are characterized by ideological and emotional expression.
6. Message (letter in verse).In Russian literature of the 18th century, this genre variety was extremely popular. The messages were written by Derzhavin, Kantemir, Kostrov, Lomonosov, Petrov, Sumarokov, Trediakovsky, Fonvizin and many others. In the first half of the 19th century, they were also in use. They are written Batyushkov, Zhukovsky, Pushkin, Lermontov.
7. Romance. This is the name of a poem that has the character of a love song.
8. Sonnet - solid poetic form. It consists of fourteen lines, which, in turn, fall into two quatrains (quatrains) and two tripods (tercets).
9. The poem. It was in the 19th and 20th centuries that this structure became one of the lyrical forms.
10. Elegy is another popular genre of lyric poetry of melancholic content.
11. Epigram - a short poem of a lyrical warehouse. Characterized by great freedom of content.
12. Epitaph (gravestone inscription).
Genre lyrics by Pushkin and Lermontov
A. S. Pushkin wrote in various lyrical genres. It:
- Oh yeah. For example, "Liberty" (1817).
- Elegy - "Daylight extinguished" (1820).
- The message - “To Chaadaev” (1818).
- The epigram is “On Alexander!”, “On Vorontsov” (1824).
- The song - “About Oleg's Prophetic” (1822).
- Romance - “I am here, Inesilla” (1830).
- Sonnet, satire.
- Lyrical works that go beyond the traditional genres - “To the Sea”, “Village”, “Anchar” and many others.
Pushkin's many-sided themes are also: civil position, the problem of the freedom of creativity and many other topics are touched upon in his works.
Разнообразные жанры лирики Лермонтова составляют the bulk of his literary heritage. He is the successor of the traditions of the civil poetry of the Decembrists and Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin. Initially, the most favorite genre was monologue confession. Then - romance, elegy and many others. But satire and epigram are extremely rare in his work.
Thus, lyric works can bewritten in various genres. For example, sonnet, madrigal, epigram, romance, elegy, etc. Also, the lyrics are often classified by subject. For example, civil, intimate, philosophical, religious, and so on. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the lyrics are constantly updated and updated with new genre formations. In poetic practice, there are genres of lyric poetry borrowed from related arts. From music: waltz, prelude, march, nocturne, cantata, requiem, etc. From painting: portrait, still life, etude, bas-relief, and so on. In modern literature there is a synthesis of genres, therefore, lyrical works are divided into groups.