The theme of love in Russian literature is one ofbasic. The poet or prose writer opens his soul to the reader, experiences, suffering. And this lyric was always in demand. Indeed, one can not understand the author's relationship to his own work, aspects of philosophical prose, but the words of love in literature are so widely available that they can be used in various life situations. In what works is the theme of love particularly brightly reflected? What are the features of the authors' perception of this feeling? Our article will tell about this.
The Place of Love in Russian Literature
Love in fiction existedalways. If we talk about domestic works, then immediately come to mind Peter and Fevronia of Murom from the eponymous story of Ermolai-Erasmus, which relates to Old Russian literature. Recall that other topics then, but Christian, were taboo. This form of art was strictly religious.
The theme of love in Russian literature arose in the 18th centurycentury. The impetus for its development was translated by Trediakovsky works of foreign authors, because in Europe they already wrote about the wonderful love feelings and relations between a man and a woman. Then there were Lomonosov, Derzhavin, Zhukovsky, Karamzin.
A special flourishing theme of love inworks of Russian literature reaches in the XIX century. This era gave the world Pushkin, Lermontov, Tolstoy, Turgenev and many other luminaries. Each writer had his own personal relationship to the theme of love, which can be read through the lines of his work.
Pushkin's love lyrics: the genius's innovation
The theme of love in Russian literature of the 19th centuryheights in the works of A. Pushkin. The lyric that sings this light feeling is rich, multifaceted, and contains a whole series of features. We will analyze them.
- Extra-genres.In the love lyrics Pushkin completely subordinates the form to the content, refuses the existing canons. We will not find his elegy, romance or message. And there will be one work that combines these genres. As an example, we can cite the well-known poem "K ****", dedicated to AP Kern. This, on the one hand, the message (the genre is clearly traced), but there are features of romance (deeply personal experiences are revealed, the work is incredibly musical and melodious) and even elegy (emotionality).
- A new value system.Romanticism is a phenomenon in Russian literature, where the personality of the author stood in the center, lonely, rebellious, opposed to the world. Pushkin goes in a different direction: his poems are filled with worldly wisdom and humanism. Remember the work "I loved you" - something new has been introduced here than just poetry about unrequited love. Pushkin leaves the choice to the woman, even if it does not happen in his favor. In a romantic work, this would be a tragedy, a whirlwind of passions. Pushkin does not curse his beloved (as it would have been for a poet-romanticist) - he thanks her for the light feeling that was presented to him. Alexander Sergeyevich focuses attention on his chosen one, not on his love for himself.
- Love according to Pushkin is not an anomaly, but a natural onea condition of the person. If it is not mutual - this is no reason to suffer. The poet rejoices even in unrequited love. Example - "There is night haze on the hills of Georgia". These poems about unrequited love are full of "light sadness." The author says that "despondency" does not disturb him. Feels life-affirming nature.
Love as a reflection of personal qualities in "Eugene Onegin"
"Eugene Onegin" - a work where the theme of love inRussian literature sounds particularly expressive. It shows not just a feeling, but its evolution throughout life. In addition, through love reveals the main images of the novel.
In the center of the story is a hero whose name is rendered intitle. The reader is forced throughout the novel to be tormented by the question: Is Evgeny capable of loving? Raised in the spirit of the manners of the high society of the Moscow society, in feelings he is deprived of sincerity. Being in a "spiritual dead end", he meets Tatiana Larina, who, unlike him, knows how to sincerely and disinterestedly love.
Tatyana writes a love letter to Onegin, he is touched by this act of the girl, but no more. Disappointed, Larina agrees to marry the unloved and leaves for St. Petersburg.
Onegin’s last meeting with Tatyana happens onafter several years. Eugene confesses to a young woman in love, but she rejects him. A woman admits that she still loves, but is bound by the obligations of marriage.
Thus, the main character of Pushkin’s novel fails the test with love; he was frightened by the overwhelming feeling, rejected it. The insight came too late.
Lyubov Lermontova - the unattainable ideal
Another was the love of a woman for M. Lermontov.For him, this feeling, which absorbs a person completely, is a force that nothing can win. Love according to Lermontov is what will unequivocally make a person suffer: “Everyone cried who loved”.
Indissolubly these lyrics are associated with women in lifethe poet himself. Katerina Sushkova is a girl Lermontov fell in love with as early as 16 years old. The poems dedicated to her are emotional, they tell about an unrequited feeling, the desire to find not only a woman, but also a friend.
Natalya Ivanova, the next woman in lifeLermontov, answered him in return. On the one hand, in the poems of this period there is more happiness, however, here too, there are notes of deception. Natalia does not understand the poet's deep mental organization in many ways. Changes have also occurred in the themes of such works: now they are focused on feelings and passions.
Relationships with Barbara Lopukhina are completely different. The whole being of the poet is imbued with love here, nature, even the Motherland, speaks about it.
Love becomes a prayer in poems,dedicated to Maria Scherbatova. Only 3 works have been written, but each of them is a masterpiece, a hymn of love. According to Lermontov, he found the very woman who understands him completely. Love in these poems is contradictory: it can heal, but also hurt, execute and bring back to life.
Hard path to the happiness of the heroes of "War and Peace" of Tolstoy
Considering how love is represented infiction should pay attention to the works of L. Tolstoy. His epic War and Peace is a work where love somehow affected each of the heroes. After all, “family thought”, which occupies a central place in the novel, is inseparably linked with love.
Each of the images goes a hard way, but ineventually finds family happiness. There are exceptions: Tolstoy puts a kind of equal sign between the ability of a person to selflessly love and his moral purity. But to this quality one must reach a succession of sufferings, mistakes, which ultimately will purify the soul and make it crystal, capable of loving.
Recall the difficult path to the happiness of AndrewBolkonsky. Inspired by the beauty of Lisa, he marries her, but, having quickly cooled down, is disappointed in marriage. He understands that he chose a spouse empty and spoiled. Next - war, the sky of Austerlitz and the oak tree - a symbol of spiritual flourish, life. Love for Natasha Rostova is what gave the prince Bolkonsky a breath of fresh air.
Testing love in the works of I. S. Turgenev
Images of love in the literature of the XIX century - this is the heroes of Turgenev. The author of each of them conducts the test of this feeling.
The only one who passes it is Arkady Bazarov from “Fathers and Children”. Maybe that's why he is the ideal hero of Turgenev.
Nihilist, who denies everything around, Bazarovcalls love "foolishness", for it is only a disease that can be cured. However, after meeting with Anna Odintsova and falling in love with her, he changes not only his attitude to this feeling, but the worldview as a whole.
Bazarov confesses love to Anna Sergeyevna, but sherejects him. The girl is not ready for a serious relationship, can not deny themselves for the sake of another, even a loved one. Here she suffers a fiasco in the testing of Turgenev. And Bazarov - the winner, he became the hero, who was looking for a writer for himself in the "Noble Nest", "Rudin", "Ace" and other works.
"The Master and Margarita" - a mystical love story
The theme of love in Russian literature of the 20th century is growing anddeveloping, gaining strength. Not a single writer and poet of this era has bypassed this theme. Yes, it could be transformed, for example, into love for people (let us remember Gorky Danko) or Motherland (this is, perhaps, most of the work of Mayakovsky or the works of the war years). But there is an exceptional literature on love: these are the poetic poems of S. Yesenin, the poets of the Silver Age. If we talk about prose, this is first of all M. Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita.
The love arising between the heroes is sudden, it “jumps out” from nowhere. Master draws attention to the eyes of Margarita, so sad and lonely.
However, at the most critical moment, only love helps Margarita save the Master and their feelings, even if not in the human world.
Love lyrics Esenina
Тема любви в русской литературе XX века – это еще and poetry. Consider in this vein the work of S. Yesenin. The poet inextricably linked this bright feeling with nature, his love is extremely chaste and strongly attached to the biography of the poet himself. A vivid example is the poem “Green Hairstyle”. Here, all the features of L. Kashina, dear to Esenin (the work is dedicated to her) are presented through the beauty of Russian birch: a thin mill, pigtails-branches.
"Moscow tavern" reveals to us a completely different love, now it is "contagion" and "plague." Such images are associated primarily with the emotional experiences of the poet, who feels his uselessness.
Healing comes in the cycle "Love the bully." The culprit is A. Miklashevskaya, who cured Yesenin of torment. He again believed that there is true love, inspiring and regenerating.
In his last poems Yesenin condemnsthe deceitfulness and insincerity of women, he believes that this feeling should be deeply sincere and life-affirming, give man a leg under his feet. Such, for example, the poem "The leaves fall, the leaves fall ...".
Silver Age poets about love
Theme of love in Russian literature of the Silver Age- this is the work of not only S. Yesenin, but also A. Akhmatova, M. Tsvetaeva, A. Blok, O. Mandelstam and many others. All of them are united by a very subtle mental organization, and suffering and happiness are the main companions of the muse of poets and poets.
Examples of love in Russian literature of the 20th century aregreat A. Akhmatova and M. Tsvetaeva. The latter is a “quivering doe”, sensual, vulnerable. Love for her is the meaning of life, something that makes not only create, but also exist in this world. “I like that you are not ill with me” - her masterpiece, full of bright sadness and contradictions. And this is the whole of Tsvetaeva. The same poignant lyricism is imbued with the poem "Yesterday I Looked in the Eyes." This is, perhaps, a peculiar hymn of all women who have fallen in love: “My dear, what have I done to you?”.
A completely different theme of love in Russian literature inthe image of A. Akhmatova. This is the tension of all the feelings and thoughts of man. Akhmatova herself defined this feeling - “the fifth season of the year”. But if it were not for him, the other four would not be visible. The love of the poetess is loud, all-affirming, returning to the natural beginnings.