/ / The structure of the abdominal cavity of man. Anatomical features

The structure of the abdominal cavity of man. Anatomical features

The structure of the human abdomen is strikinglydiffers from the structure of similar anatomical structures in other mammalian species. The abdominal cavity (cavum abdominis) or the abdominal cavity is called the space laced by the intra-abdominal fascia, bounded from above by the diaphragm sheet, from both sides and from the front by the broad muscles (musculi obliqui et transversus abdominis) of the abdomen, and behind - the lumbar spine and adjacent muscles . Below it, that is, the abdominal or abdominal cavity, smoothly passes into a small cavity of the small pelvis. In the abdominal space are various internal organs along with the peritoneum covering them, as well as large vascular trunks and nerves.

The structure of the human abdominal cavity in detailsis studied in higher medical schools, since the diseases of the organs located in it are the most common pathological conditions in medical practice. It is from the profound knowledge of a surgeon of such a feature of the human body as the structure of the abdominal cavity that at times the life of not one dozen people in need of his help depends.

Structure of the human abdominal organscharacterized by the fact that most of them are covered with a thin serous membrane, called the peritoneum. The peritoneum is a delicate and very thin connective tissue structure that has a huge amount of differentiated elastic fibers and is covered inside with a single-layered flat epithelium, that is, mesothelium. This thin serous membrane has a large and very peculiar absorption capacity. Serous fluid, which sufficiently produces the peritoneal mesothelium, lubricates the surface of all internal organs, facilitating their friction between themselves. Thanks to this unique property of the peritoneum, a healthy person does not feel discomfort and any changes in his own abdominal cavity. However, with inflammatory phenomena, when the foreign effusion hits the peritoneal sheets, there is a feeling of sharp and incessant pain. In inflammatory processes, the peritoneum can form spikes to limit the spread of infection throughout the abdominal cavity.

The structure of the abdominal cavity of man is the same ineach of the representatives of Homo sapiens. Only it can differ slightly in different periods of his life. In childhood, there are special features, in the adult - their own. There are also some differences between the male and female abdominal cavity. In the representatives of the strong half, this cavity is a closed space, and in the female part of the population it is not such, because through the fallopian tubes it communicates with the uterine cavity, and through the vagina with the surrounding environment.

Organs in the abdominal or abdominal cavity maybe covered with a serous membrane either from all sides, or only partially. Some of them are not covered by the peritoneum at all. The peritoneum, which lining the walls of the abdomen, is called the parietal peritoneum, that is, the parietal, and the one that lines most of the internal organs is called the visceral or internal peritoneum. Therefore, speaking in general, it can be said that the structure of the human abdominal cavity is nothing more than a slot-like space between the parietal (parietal) and visceral (intestinal) leaves, filled with a small amount of aseptic serous fluid.

In the peritoneum, the following parts are also distinguished,which are called mesentery. Mesentery, or duplication, are bifurcated peritoneal sheets, on which a small intestine without a duodenum, an appendicular process, a transverse and a sigmoid part of the colon of the large intestine are suspended from the back wall of the abdominal cavity.