The economically active population is represented byCitizens who offer their work in production for a certain period. According to the UN methodology, this category includes entrepreneurs, employees and persons who do not have work at the time, but wish to receive it. In other words, this category of population includes employed and unemployed citizens.
Employment involves the activities of people to meet public and their needs, which do not contradict the current legislation and bring, in the main, labor income.
Economically active population in the part of employed citizens includes persons of age from 16 years and irrespective of gender, who during the analyzed period:
- worked on the terms of full or part-time employment for receiving a certain reward;
- were not at work due to illness, leave, weekend, etc .;
- performed free work at family enterprises.
In many international standards concerning the notion of "economically active population" one can find the following division of this term:
- usually active population - applied to a long period of time (over a year);
- active population in the current period - applies to a short period of time (a week or a day).
The economically inactive population is represented bycitizens of a certain age who are not included, for whatever reason, in the labor force represented by the employed and unemployed. This type can include the following categories:
- cadets, students, students (full-time education), this category includes graduate students, doctoral students who are also on-campus training;
- receiving pensions of various types;
- persons who are on disability pension of any of the groups;
- persons on leave for caring for sick relatives or children;
- persons who may not work, regardless of the main source of income.
Among the main reasons for unemployment are the following:
- reduction of staff or liquidation of the organization;
- the end of the period of seasonal work or the operation of the contract;
- dismissal at will;
- reaching the age of retirement;
- other personal reasons.
Economically active population can be replenishedfrom a number of persons listed above, as students once finish their studies, at home-owners children grow up, and people who do not want to work sometimes need such a necessity.
The most important parts of the information thatcharacterizes labor resources, are information on the economically inactive population, since the transition of a part of the population from active to inactive, and vice versa, is in constant motion.
In the relevant terminology, the notion"Economically active population" has been used for a long time. In Russia, this term could only be found in scientific literature. However, in practice, the application of this concept began with the transition of the State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation to international standards (1992). During this period, selective surveys among the population on employment were conducted on a regular basis. At the same time, the publication in the official collections of the number of identified such a category of citizens began.
Economically active population of Russia in June2012 was 76.4 million people, and, according to statistics, is gradually increasing. Out of a total of 72.7 million people or 94.5% are working, the rest are unemployed. In comparison with May of the current year, the number of employed people increased (0.2%), but the number of unemployed increased more (1.3%).p>