This is the largest gland in the human body,which is a vital organ. It is located in the abdominal cavity, immediately below the diaphragm, on the right side. It participates in metabolic processes, cleanses the body of toxins, promotes digestion, synthesizes cholesterol, bile acids. It accumulates fats, proteins, minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins. It is very important to maintain the liver in a healthy state, and for this it is necessary to know the symptoms of liver diseases and the causes that cause them.
Classification of diseases
In medicine, still have not come to a singleclassification of diseases of this organ and bile ducts because the main criteria by which diseases are systematized: causes, changes in structure, causative agent, clinical manifestations, are intertwined. According to morphology (pathological processes of the disease), all pathologies of the liver and bile ducts are conventionally divided into three main groups.
- Parenchymal diseases are diseases associated with cell disruption, which provide the basic functions of the organ. These include: cirrhosis, hepatitis, all neoplasms: cyst, various tumors.
- Hepatobiliary - they belong to differentinflammatory processes in the bile ducts, which have medicinal, toxic and infectious origin. The same group includes diseases associated with disorders of bile outflow, resulting from spasm, blockage, or neoplasm of ducts.
- Vascular - any violations of the functioning of the body, associated with the state of the vessels.
In addition to this classification, all diseases can be divided according to the etiology (causes and conditions of occurrence) of the disease and other criteria.
Causes of the disease
Liver tissues are very resistant to different negativeinfluences. This is the only organ of a person who can self-repair. Despite this, the constant influence of adverse factors leads to various diseases. The main causes of ailments that are taken into account in the diagnosis of liver disease are:
- Injuries.They occur at a fall, at work, in an accident. Visible signs may not be, and the symptoms will appear much later in the form of cysts, which are discovered quite accidentally during ultrasound examination.
- Viral infections.Hepatitis A, B and C viruses pose a serious danger. They produce inflammation of the tissues that pass in acute or chronic form, causing later cirrhosis. The safest of them is hepatitis A, called jaundice. It does not go into a chronic form and does not lead to serious consequences. The greatest danger is with hepatitis B, which for a long time does not show a clinical picture, becomes chronic and has a risk of developing cirrhosis or cancer.
- Presence of parasites. Their various types cause organic and functional disorders. There are necrosis, combining amoeba abscess, there is a development of liver failure.
- Medicinal products. Unsustainable use of medicines, especially antibacterial, hormonal and antifungal agents leads to disruption of the vital organ.
- Poisoning.The systematic exposure of toxic substances to the human body as a result of work in harmful industries leads to liver damage. One-time exposure to vapors of heavy metals or chemical compounds can cause acute necrosis of the gland. There is a hepatic failure, as a result of which the remaining healthy cells can not perform all the functions assigned to them. Over time, dead cells are replaced with a connective tissue, which leads to the development of cirrhosis.
- Alcohol poisoning. Abuse of alcoholic beverages also leads to cirrhosis.
- Incorrect food.The high content of fatty, sharp, fried and smoked products in the diet makes it difficult to outflow bile, which leads to stagnation, resulting in the formation of stones, both in the gall bladder and in the ducts.
- Genetic predisposition.Disturbances in the structure of the liver cause narrowing of the ducts and blood vessels, which complicates the flow of blood and bile, the weak development of a vital organ or its parts leads to a decrease in functioning.
- Presence of purulent foci in the peritoneum. This affects the work of the biliary tract, the development of cholangitis or abscess.
- Exposure to radiation. Radiation or ionizing backgrounding causes the degeneration of liver cells into cells that are of a malignant nature.
Factors that affect the condition and functioning of the body are many, but most of them are related to the way of life, so a person is able to maintain his health.
What are liver diseases?
In medicine, the following diseases are considered to be the main diseases:
- Hepatitis - inflammation, having a different nature.They are acute or chronic, have a toxic, medicinal or viral nature. In the absence of timely treatment, the general condition of a person is significantly impaired.
- Primary cirrhosis. The disease is more common in women. Symptoms of liver disease are manifested by itching, ulceration, yellowing of the mucous and dermis.
- Cholangitis. There are inflammatory processes in the ducts of the organ.
- Vascular anomalies - stagnant liver, vein thrombosis.
- Tuberculosis - bacteria usually enter the intestine from the hematogenous or lymphogenous pathways, and sometimes spread through the bile ducts.
- Fatty degeneration - the cells of the body are replaced with fat tissue.
- Liver failure is characterized by a violation of one or more functions. Appears in connection with the defeat of the parenchyma.
- Hepatomegaly - a pathological increase in the size of a vital organ. This condition is typical for many diseases.
- Volumetric (focal) formation of the liver - single and multiple sites of structural change, the origin of which can be very different: benign and malignant.
- Steatosis - fatty infiltration of the body. The cells accumulate fat.
- The cyst is a benign cavity filled with fluid inside. It is located in various segments of the liver.
- Hepatic coma - is caused by deep inhibition of the body. A person loses consciousness, blood circulation and breathing are disturbed.
Most often, when examining patients, they detect hepatitis, cirrhosis and steatosis of the liver.
The first signs of the disease
To recognize the symptoms of the disease,where the liver is located. Its shape is similar to an obtuse triangle, which consists of two parts and has rounded edges. The liver is located in the peritoneum on the right side. Its upper part is located from the left nipple to the right nipple, and the lower part is at the right ribs. At an early stage of the disease there may be no signs. This body does not contain nerve fibers, so the pain may not appear for a long time.
With liver diseases the very first signis weakness and rapid fatigue. But it should be remembered that such symptoms have a number of other diseases, or simply they can appear with excessive strain. With the constant presence of ailments without any apparent cause, it is advisable to consult a doctor. In diseases, these symptoms are associated with intoxication of the body, since the liver ceases to cope with its purification. In addition, there may be a disturbance in metabolic processes: vitamin, carbohydrate and protein. In all intricacies can understand only the doctor. The most important thing is to turn to him at the first sign of liver disease.
The main symptoms of pathology
Diseases of this organ for a long time pass withoutany signs, the pain appears even with severe liver damage, when it increases in size and begins to squeeze the fibrous membrane where the pain receptors are located. With various liver diseases, the following symptoms may appear:
- weakness and general malaise;
- heaviness under the ribs on the right side;
- yellowness of mucous membranes and skin;
- dark color of urine;
- feces of a liquid consistency and grayish-white color;
- the appearance of puffiness;
- the formation of bruises due to fragility of the vessels;
- increased sweating;
- frequent bleeding;
- in the mornings bitter taste in the mouth, in the language of yellow plaque and unpleasant odor;
- papules on the skin, burning and itching;
- severe weight loss;
- the appearance on the stomach of a venous pattern and an increase in its volume;
- frequent headaches, loss of memory and mental abilities;
- hormonal failure and dysfunction of the nervous system;
- a significant increase in volume.
Symptoms of liver disease are numbnessmuscles, a feeling of cold fingers and toes, nails become brittle, brittle with white streaks or spots. Hepatitis and cirrhosis are accompanied by a slight increase in temperature. With its values greater than 39 degrees, one should expect that a purulent process develops. The nervous system reacts with sleep disorders, apathy, fatigue due to incomplete elimination of toxins due to poor organ performance.
To establish the diagnosis, the doctor conducts the following studies:
- Conversation with the patient - hears complaints of the patient.
- Inspection - visual examination: the volume of the abdomen, skin color and tongue, the presence of rashes.
- Palpation - it turns out the size of a vital organ, density, shape.
- Biochemical blood test in liver disease helps diagnose hepatitis, metabolic disorders and cirrhosis.
- General analysis of urine - the color, transparency, smell, the nature of the foam is examined.
- Stool analysis - determine physical and chemical indices.
- Analysis for viral hepatitis and HIV infection.
- Ultrasound - to identify the focus of the disease.
- CT and MRI - the focus of the lesion is determined, the sizes, condition of the tissues are specified.
- Puncture - for the collection of material for histology.
- Duodenal sounding - the function of the gallbladder, bile sampling for analysis is evaluated.
The performed diagnostics of liver diseases allows to establish the diagnosis accurately and to prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Skin changes in diseases
In diseases associated with this internal organ, specific changes occur on the skin. They can be the following manifestations:
- Jaundiceous color of the dermis.First of all, the color changes in the mucous membranes, eye sclera, the lower surface of the tongue, palms, feet, face, and then the whole body takes a yellowish shade, especially noticeable in natural light.
This process is associated with an increased content of bilirubin in the blood.
- Skin rash.Eruptions in liver diseases are manifested in the form: pustules, furuncles, dermatitis, eczema, hemorrhagic rash. All this is connected with functional disorders in the work of the internal organ - inability to synthesize immunoglobulin, neutralize toxic substances, produce prothrombin.
- The appearance of stretch marks. Often they appear on the abdomen in the form of thin strips of cyanotic color. In the body, there is a hormonal failure, because the liver can not cope with surplus steroid hormones.
- Itching of the body with liver disease is explainedincreased concentration of toxic substances in the epidermis due to poor performance of the body. Irritated skin on the abdomen, hips and forearms is combed and very difficult to treat.
- Vascular asterisks are small blood vessels. They appear on the face, neck, and then spread throughout the body and are considered signs of cirrhosis.
- Excessive pallor of the skin. Disrupted absorption of nutrients and a reduced amount of protein to form hemoglobin leads to anemia.
- Stains on the skin with liver diseases. They appear in the inguinal and axillary areas. Pigmentation has a bronze or smoky color and is a symptom of hemochromatosis.
Pain in the liver
The intensity and nature of pain can be assumed to be a type of gland disease:
- Acute - occurs when pathological phenomena in the gallbladder. There is a spasm of the bile ducts, which leads to a violation of the outflow of bile, liver cramps begin.
- Burning - appears with acute cholecystitis. This causes bitterness in the mouth, the temperature rises, nausea and vomiting begin. Pain in diseases of the liver can give in the right arm and collarbone.
- Dull - is inherent in chronic inflammatory diseases: cholecystitis, hepatitis. Additional signs will be: poor digestibility of food, flatulence, nausea.
- Aching is characteristic of cirrhosis or malignant tumors.
In some cases, pain in the right hypochondrium can cause diseases that are completely unrelated to the internal body under consideration.
Clinic in men
Various ailments of the body's key organsuffer all people regardless of age category. Differences between the signs of liver disease in men and women do not exist. According to medical statistics, it is believed that women are less likely to be affected by these diseases than men. This, most likely, is connected with the lifestyle, and not with the constitutional features of man. Some diseases are more common in women. For example, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, provokes disruption of the hepatobiliary system (excretion of metabolic products and digestion from the body). Others suffer more often than men. For example, cirrhosis, which arises from excessive use of alcohol or working conditions with toxic substances. Certain types of pathology affect the sexual activity of men. The signs of liver disease that occur with mass death of hepatocytes lead to a decrease in potency.
When examining the analysis for blood biochemistryits composition is revealed, the results of which are recorded in a certain form, which lists the main components and their content in the blood. The values of the indicators may vary depending on the age and sex of the patient. Deviations from their norm are a symptom of a violation of the body. Correctly evaluate all the results of the analysis, compare them with other signs and causes of the disease can only be the attending physician. The main indicators of liver diseases in blood biochemistry are:
- proteins - general, creatine, albumin, uric acid, urea;
- lipids and lipoproteins - cholesterol, apolipoprotein, triglycerides;
- carbohydrates - fructosamine, glucose;
- specific proteins - transferrin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, myoglobin, troponin;
- pigments - bile acids, bilirubin;
Only the biochemistry of the blood reflects the functional state of the internal organ and will greatly help the doctor diagnose.
Plaque in the language
Language is not only a participant in the digestive systemprocess, but also an indicator of human health. When you visit a doctor, you can often hear the phrase: "Show the language." Such interest of doctors is not accidental, the language is one of the first to feel the anomalies that have begun in the body. An experienced physician in the appearance of this vital internal organ can identify the symptoms of certain ailments. The color of the tongue with liver disease usually becomes yellow.
Such color is caused by violations thatassociated with the outflow of bile from the gallbladder. The most common cause of this phenomenon is the occurrence of cholecystitis due to stagnation of bile or infection with hepatitis. In addition, there is a bitter taste in the mouth and painful sensations in the right hypochondrium. Sometimes the appearance of yellow plaque indicates a disease of the stomach or prolonged smoking. You can not diagnose the color of the tongue, of course. To do this, it is necessary to take into account other symptoms and causes that caused a discoloration of the tongue and the results of laboratory tests. In case of liver disease, instrumental studies are also carried out in complex cases.
How to eat
With the help of dietary food restoreliver function, bile formation and bile secretion, as well as metabolism. Due to irregularities in the body, food should cause appetite and be quickly absorbed. It should contain protein, which is easily digested, fiber, minerals and vitamins. It is necessary to exclude fats of animal origin and foods that enhance the secretion of gastric juice. It is recommended to take food often.
What to eat with liver disease:
- all dairy products;
- low-fat varieties of fresh boiled fish;
- vegetables and fruits;
- some flour products;
- low-fat boiled meat;
- jam, honey, pastille, marmalade.
It should be limited to:
- caviar of sturgeons and salmonids;
- cooked sausage;
When symptoms of liver disease are prohibited:
- alcohol-containing beverages;
- spicy seasonings;
- goose meat, duck, pork and lamb;
- cakes, cakes;
- fried, smoked and pickled products;
- tomato juice.
The doctor in view of features of disease canappoint some restrictions in the diet and recommend diet food for a certain time. With the ability to cook and pick up recipes, food is made varied and tasty. The menu is recommended to plan for a week, taking into account the caloric content of the products used.