Myxedema is a severe endocrine disease,which is considered by doctors as a form of hypothyroidism. Usually, the pathology occurs against the background of a slowing down of thyroid function. Often, the ailment is manifested in women, that suffer from a violation of the hormonal background. However, it is not uncommon for the myxedema of the thyroid gland to be exposed to men. Let's consider the features of the disease. Also highlight the causes and symptoms of myxedema, let's talk about the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Myxedema is what?Slowed-down thyroid gland causes the production of insufficient amounts of hormones. Against the backdrop of the phenomenon there are severe disruptions in the body. The pathological condition is called in clinical practice hypothyroidism. The serious form of the presented ailment is actually the myxedema.
Progress of the disease leads to disruptioninternal secretion or complete disappearance of hormone production of thyroxine. Often, this happens as a result of infection of the body, in particular, with severe angina, syphilis. Provoke a malfunction in the functioning of the endocrine system capable of brain injury.
According to some experts, myxedema isthe consequence of improperly performed therapy with the impact on the patient of X-ray irradiation or the result of poorly performed surgical operations. Such a potentially can lead to a change in the functions of the secretory glands.
The cause of myxedema in rare cases becomeconditions of human habitation. The disease is often found in a significant part of the population in places where there is a lack of iodine in food and water consumed. A certain role is also played by non-compliance with hygiene, for example, living in rooms with a high level of humidity in the surrounding area.
Disease myxedema, a photo of which manifestationscan be seen in our material, can manifest itself in the form of numerous negative phenomena on the part of a number of organs and systems. This is explained by the fact that the hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland affect the general condition of the whole organism. However, there are specific symptoms of myxedema. Among them are:
- Swelling of the subcutaneous tissue. When pressing on the affected tissue, a depression is formed, which has a stable character.
- Appearance of facial features. The skin in the presented area becomes puffy, under the eyes of the patient, pronounced sacs are formed.
- Changing the structure of the skin. Against the background of dystrophic changes, the dermis is detached. There is also increased brittleness of hair and nails.
- Damage to the vocal cords.The latter become inflamed and swell. The voice of a person subject to the development of myxedema, acquires a husky or coarse character. With the progress of the disease, speech becomes more and more vague.
Because myxedema is one of the formshypothyroidism, such symptoms as increased drowsiness, worsening of appetite, decrease in general tone of tissues, motor dysfunction, joint pain can be added to the above symptoms.
A particular type of disease is hispretybial form. In contrast to the classic course of the disease, the pathology is not characterized by a decreased, but on the contrary - increased secretion of hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland. The result is the appearance of distinct roughness and horny areas on the surface of the skin. Often, patients who suffer from a disease in this form complain of a feeling of severe itching, which leads to scratching of the skin and the appearance of wounds. What kind of therapy is used in the classical and pretybial myxedema? Treatment of the disease will be considered further in the material.
Myxedema in children
In infants, the disease is early orinborn. In both cases, the pathology is characterized by delays in physical, sexual and mental development. The earlier disruptions in the functioning of the endocrine system, the more severe the consequences of myxedema, which develops in the child. Therefore, an extremely important moment in childhood is the saturation of the body with iodine.
The most severe manifestation of the disease is thecretinism. No less serious on the quality of life of children with this disease are delayed growth. The consequence of the above manifestations are often external deformities, noticeable lag in intellectual development in comparison with peers.
Endocrinologists are engaged in the diagnosis of myxedema. To confirm the presence of the disease, researchers can resort to the following solutions:
- Comparison of patient complaints with characteristic symptoms.
- Palpation of inflamed skin, in which there is a presence of stable depressions in the tissues.
- Studies of the level of hormones in the blood.
- Ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid status.
- Performing a puncture with a biopsy.
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the thyroid gland.
- Identification of complications that accompany myxedeme.
With miksedem special importance is the use ofspecial diet. A person who suffers from such a disease, it is recommended to eat more foods with a high content of iodine. First of all, we are talking about laminaria, sea fish, walnuts. The usual salt must be replaced with iodized salt. Compliance with such a diet contributes to the restoration of the functionality of the thyroid gland and relief of the main symptoms of myxedema.
The main task in the fight against the development of pathologyis the replenishment of the volume of hormones, which in insufficient quantities are produced by the thyroid gland. Physicians individually select for each patient pharmacological preparations, determine the dosage and form a treatment regimen. Experts are focused on the causes that led to the formation of myxedema, the specificity of clinical manifestations, the general state of human health, age characteristics.
Often, in order to eliminate unpleasant symptomsdiseases are prescribed taking such drugs as "Triiodothyronine" and "Thyreoidin." These drugs are rich in iodine, which has a beneficial effect on the thyroid gland. In addition, hormonal therapy is prescribed, in particular, the use of medications, which contain glucocorticoids.
Traditional methods of treatment
Smoking symptoms of myxedema potentially allows the use of the following folk medicine:
- Decoction based on chopped walnut,honey, garlic and dill seeds. The agent prepared using these ingredients improves the functionality of the thyroid gland. Take this medicine several times a day.
- Decoction of field chamomile, bilberry leaves,pine buds, smokies and an Irish lichen. The product is prepared in a water bath. The composition is filtered through gauze or a fine sieve. The liquid must be cooled and taken periodically during the day.
- Decoction of honey, lemon crusts and flax seeds. The ingredients are boiled for a few minutes over medium heat. The liquid is filtered and consumed several times a day.
- To maintain thyroid function in thetraditional medicine is widely used sea kale. Dried kelp is grinded to a powdery state and taken on a teaspoon once a day, before adding to food or stirring in water.
Who is at risk?
As practice shows, most often myxedemadevelops in individuals that have a bad heredity. We are talking about children whose parents suffered from diabetes mellitus, chronic thyroid disease, and kidney failure.
Attentive also should be people who have suffered complex operations. The consequences of poorly performed surgical interventions may be disruptions in the endocrine system.
The risk group includes people who abuseunauthorized use of certain pharmacological agents. In particular, myxedema can develop in people that take drugs with elevated sodium and prolactin levels.
Preventive measures that can prevent the development of myxedema include the following:
- Regular diagnosis of the functionality of the thyroid gland.
- Control over the amount of iodine intake.
- Periodic examination of the endocrinologist.
For the ailment is characterized by unhurried increasesymptoms. If the problem is diagnosed in a timely manner and appropriate, appropriate treatment is used, the course of the disease will not critically affect the quality of human life. In this case myxedema will develop benignly. In fact, getting rid of the pathology is definitely not possible. Therapy will have to be carried out throughout life.
If we talk about the development of myxedema in the earlyage, the forecasts here are not so favorable. With the timely recognition of pathology, the child's well-being can be improved through hormone replacement therapy. However, this will not completely eliminate the symptoms of the disease, which will necessarily make themselves felt during the course of growing up.
So we looked at the causes, symptoms and treatmentmyxedema. Finally, it should be noted that with such a severe disease of the endocrine system, one should not resort to self-therapy. Before using any pharmacological drugs or traditional medicine, it is absolutely necessary to consult a doctor. Only in this case it is possible to achieve a positive effect and avoid causing even greater harm to health.