Шейным лимфаденитом называют воспаление regional lymph nodes located on the neck, which occurs as a result of their infection with various bacteria. Infection penetrates into the lymph node through the lymphatic pathways from the main inflammatory focus. Cervical lymphadenitis rarely appears as an independent disease, more often it appears secondary, due to the spread of the inflammatory process.
Cervical lymphadenitis is considered polyethylenica disease, that is, a huge number of causes can lead to its occurrence. The causative agent of the disease are bacteria: staphylococcus, tuberculosis bacillus or streptococcus. According to medical statistics, the most common factor provoking the disease is the inflammatory process, which develops as a result of complicated teeth, destroyed by caries. Very often cervical lymphadenitis occurs as a result of other diseases of the oral cavity, nose, ear and throat. For example, it can be stomatitis, rhinitis, purulent otitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and purulent sore throat. Also, the inflammatory processes on the scalp, neck and face, such as furuncle, abscess and carbuncle, can provoke the development of this disease. Cervical lymphadenitis in children always accompanies scarlet fever, and in adults - syphilis.
The disease at the initial stage does not have a vivid clinical picture. But, depending on the nature of the course of the disease, the clinic becomes pronounced. Cervical lymphadenitis is acute or chronic.
Acute inflammatory process begins with dullpain, localized in the site of the affected node, and limitation of mobility of the neck. The lymph nodes themselves are enlarged, and when pressed on them, painful sensations are noted. If the correct treatment is carried out in time, then all the symptoms disappear after a few weeks. And in the running cases in the area of the node an infiltrate is formed. The general well-being of the patient deteriorates considerably. There are: severe pain in the cervical region, fever, malaise, loss of appetite. A few days later, at the site of the infiltrate, a fistula is formed, through which pus comes out. With such a course of the disease, a long and intensive treatment is required.
Хронический лимфаденит шейный развивается после of how the acute stage subsides and is characterized by a constant increase in lymph nodes (they are not painful). The general state of health remains within the limits of the norm. If there is an infection in the body that periodically attacks the site, then there is a possibility of a new infiltration, and then a fistula next to the previous one.
If a person developed cervical lymphadenitis,treatment should begin with the elimination of the underlying cause. For example, remove the tooth, cure stomatitis, tonsillitis, tonsillitis. In acute forms of the disease, the doctor prescribes antibiotic therapy and physiotherapy to the patient. Apply dry heat to the area of the affected node: compresses and heating pads. Necessarily, the patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating and antiviral drugs. If a person develops acute lymphadenitis with the formation of infiltrates and fistulas, then he is shown immediate hospitalization. In the hospital, as a rule, the abscess is opened, washed with a solution of antibiotics and drained.
If the patient does not seek help in a timely manner, then there is a risk of complications such as thrombophlebitis, purulent infection metastases, sepsis, necrosis.
Профилактика развития осложнений шейного lymphadenitis is to maintain a constant cleanliness of the body, timely treatment for qualified care, compliance with recommendations and performance of prescriptions of the doctor.