All of us from time to time come across obscuremedical concepts. And since the total blood test is all over, the question always arises, what is monocytes, how many of them should be contained in the blood and what does this mean if the monocytes in the blood are elevated?
Monocytes are large-sized blood cells,related to the class of leukocytes. By structure - oval cells with a large nucleus and the absence of grains in the cytoplasm (agranulocytes), reacting to inflammatory processes in the body by increasing their content in the blood. The condition when monocytes in the blood are elevated is called monocytosis.
These cells are formed in the bone marrow frommonoblasts, while they share meiosis, and after a few days they migrate from the blood to the tissues, and there at the cellular level participate in phagocytosis. More often such a process is observed in response to infection, when monocytes, already becoming macrophages, are connected to maintain immunity and block foreign proteins, forming a combination of antigen-antibody. In the process of phagocytosis monocytes do not die, as often happens with eosinophils and neutrophils, but form a shaft that limits the site of inflammation. A characteristic feature is the similar behavior of these cells in an acid medium.
The monocyte contains a large amount of lysosomes,which digest the phagocytic cells of the cell, clearing the lesion site and preparing it for regeneration. There are mainly monocytes in the blood, in large quantities are present in the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow, so the trauma of one of them will give a decrease in monocytes. Monocytosis is pronounced in malignant neoplasms, infectious diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis), systemic diseases (lupus erythematosus, blood diseases), collagenoses, granulomatosis.
The content of these mononuclear leukocytes is normal inperipheral blood - no more than 0,03 - 1,00 × 109 / l, and the total number of them should not exceed 8-10% of the total number of leukocytes. If monocytes are higher than normal, this is an occasion to undergo an additional examination to identify a hotbed of infection and appropriate medication. Monocytes have a cytotoxic effect (they have a harmful effect on tumor cells, as well as diseases such as malaria), produce active substances (interferon), and participate in the recognition of foreign agents.
Even if monocytes in the blood are elevated, it is impossiblecorrectly outline the prognostic picture of the inflammatory process, based solely on their quantitative index only. To do this, it is worthwhile to evaluate the general leukocyte blood formula: if there are many monocytes, with an increase in the number of lymphocytes and the same ratio of eosinophils, but a few T-lymphocytes are reduced, this can be regarded as an excuse for a favorable outcome of the pathological condition. In contrast to the state when monocytes in the blood are elevated, as well as the number of neutrophils with a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left, and at the same time a decrease in the number of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes is observed.
If there is a sharp decrease in bloodthe number of monocytes, then we are talking about a state such as a monopotency (monocytopenia). This picture is observed in the blood of bone marrow lesions, when the process gemapoeza violated in generalized purulent infections, blood diseases, hormonal drugs, stress and shock situations, childbirth and surgical procedures, as well as injuries bodies where monocytes are based. If the number of monocytes in the peripheral blood deviates, a second blood test should be performed. Proceeding from this, the corresponding complex treatment of the underlying disease will be prescribed. Since monocytes respond to the presence of infection in the body, it can be confidently asserted that the main focus will be antibiotic therapy plus symptomatic treatment.