Why are supraclavicular lymph nodes enlarged?The reasons for the development of such a pathological phenomenon will be listed below. You will also learn about what these organs are, what a person needs them for, and how to treat them in case of inflammation.
Supraclavicular lymph nodes enlarged into severaltimes, indicate a serious malfunction in the body. And before telling you about which diseases provoke such a pathology, you should find out what these organs are in general.
Lymph nodes are called small glands,which are shaped like beans. As you know, they are located throughout the human body and are an integral part of the lymphatic system, promoting the lymph and nutrients, as well as bringing unnecessary substances into the bloodstream.
According to experts, supraclavicularthe lymph node and the entire lymphatic system as a whole constitute the most important part of the human immune system, which protects the body against various diseases. Such glands filter the lymph, capturing viruses, bacteria and other harmful elements, which are then destroyed by white blood cells, or so-called lymphocytes.
Lymph nodes can be single orgrouped. Their sizes range from small to fairly large. In the inflamed state, the supraclavicular lymph node is felt in the supraclavicular fossa. Also, these glands can be visible in the armpits and groin, but they have other names. In a healthy state, the lymph nodes do not cause pain. In addition, they are invisible to the eye and absolutely insensitive.
Causes of inflammation
Why are supraclavicular lymph nodes enlarged?The reasons for the development of such a pathology may be hidden in various problems. Often, individual lymph nodes ache and swell due to various injuries, as well as tumors or infections, developing directly in them or in organs located nearby. Thus, depending on which glands are inflamed, their cause of the increase can be identified.
For example, the supraclavicular lymph node is inflamed due to a tumor or infection in the chest, lungs, abdomen, or neck. Therefore, in case of such a pathology, it is first of all to examine these organs.
Diseases that cause inflammation of the lymph nodes
Why is supraclavicular lymph node inflamed?An increase in this gland can occur in conjunction with inflammation of other glands in other areas of the body. In this case, they speak of generalized lymphadenopathy. Such a pathological condition is usually caused by:
- Mononucleosis, signs of which are sore throat, fever and fatigue.
- Bacterial diseases, including acute pharyngitis (due to the streptococcus bacterium).
- Lyme disease (bacterial infection that spreads to some types of ticks).
- Viral infection - cytomegalovirus.
- Viral diseases, including rubella, measles, mumps or chickenpox.
- Cancer, including Hodgkin's disease, leukemia and lymphoma.
- Side effects from the use of the drug "phenytoin", which is used to prevent seizures.
- Adverse reactions from mumps-measles-rubella vaccination.
- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
- Venereal disease - syphilis.
Metastases in supraclavicular lymph nodes
The following pathways of malignant tumors are known in modern medicine:
For lymphogenous metastasis characteristicpenetration of tumor cells first into the lymphatic vessel, and then into nearby or distant lymph nodes, including supraclavicular. Most often in this way epithelial cancer spreads (for example, melanoma). Such metastasis is well studied, therefore, it is quite easy to recognize a tumor at the stage of its inception.
Metastases in the lymph nodes above the clavicle often develop in cancer of the lung or breast, as well as in malignant neoplasms in the peritoneal region.
Causes of metastasis
Metastases to an organ such as the supraclavicular lymph node are most often spread due to:
- age factor (appear mainly in older age);
- the size and location of the initial tumor site (a large tumor increases the probability of developing metastases several times);
- associated diseases (chronic diseases that weaken the body's defenses);
- the spread of cancer cells (growth of growths in the wall of the organ is more dangerous and most often causes metastasis than tumors that grow into the lumen of the organ).
Diagnosis of the disease
Where are the supraclavicular lymph nodes?The location of these glands in a healthy state is quite difficult to determine. If such organs are inflamed, then they are rather easily palpable in the supraclavicular pits.
Diagnosis of lymph node inflammation shouldcarry out only an experienced doctor. To do this, he explores the supraclavicular space from the sternum muscle tissue to the acromioclavicular joint. At the same time, the area between the legs of the cive muscles is carefully checked. In this area, palpation is performed with one middle or index finger.
With careful and in-depth study of the subclavian fossae, their lateral areas are felt right at the edges of the deltoid muscles. In healthy people, supraclavicular lymph nodes are not palpated.
Other diagnostic methods
An inflamed supraclavicular lymph node on the left or on the right can be revealed by palpation, that is, by simple palpation of the hands. These glands are also available for research in the following ways:
- Ultrasound. Ultrasound of the supraclavicular lymph node is the most accessible, informative and painless way to detect its abnormal increase.
- Computed tomography is a complex method. At the same time it is used only to assess the state of lymph nodes that are inaccessible for normal palpation.
- X-ray examination. This method is used very rarely. As a rule, enlarged lymph nodes are found on the chest X-ray by accident.
- Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy and laparoscopy.
The final point in the diagnosis and search for causesenlarged lymph nodes puts the result of a biopsy. Other research methods provide information only about the external characteristics of the inflamed gland. And only after analyzing the structure of this organ under a microscope, as well as having carried out PCR analysis and bacteriological seeding, we can speak with complete confidence about the true reason for an enlarged lymph node.
How to cure sore supraclavicular lymph noderight or left? Therapy of such a gland consists in the immediate elimination of the causes of its increase, pain and swelling. In particular, a bacterial infection is treated with antibiotic drugs, and a viral infection can pass by itself, without the use of drugs.
More serious case of supraclavicular inflammationthe lymph node is a cancerous tumor. If there is even the slightest reason to suspect that the increase in this organ is associated with an oncological disease, then a biopsy must be performed and, of course, a full examination by an experienced doctor.
Thus, if enlarged supraclavicularlymph nodes did not pass in one month, and at the same time their size did not decrease, then you should immediately visit a qualified specialist. It must be said that such glands can remain swollen for a long period after the passage of an infectious disease. Especially often this phenomenon occurs in children.
With an increase in lymph nodes, including supraclavicular, it should be remembered that:
- the size of the lymph node in the normal state is about 1-1.5 cm;
- the main cause of an increase in this organ is a local infection;
- the greater the patient's age, the higher the likelihood of the malignant nature of this pathological phenomenon;
- прием антибиотических препаратов без установления the exact cause of the development of lymphadenopathy is a false medical tactic (a diagnosis must first be made, and only then appropriate treatment should be prescribed);
- if the enlarged node has not decreased within a month, then a histological examination and biopsy are performed;
- enlargement of the glands and spleen requires immediate verification;
- an increase in lymph nodes along with an increase in body temperature and tenderness in the area of their location indicates an infectious disease;
- lymph node biopsy can be performed from the neck or axillary region, and lymph nodes in the inguinal region are not suitable for such a diagnosis;
- aspiration of an enlarged gland with a biopsy needle does not carry diagnostically important information because it does not give any idea of structural changes.