В каждой организации сотрудники работают в specific conditions. This is an important factor in the process of work, because it affects the performance of staff. Working conditions in the workplace must comply with the norms of the law; therefore, they are regularly evaluated. Details on this are presented in the article.
The concept of
Что такое условия труда на рабочем месте?This concept has existed for a long time, since the start of the exploitation of people, but only now it has been implemented at the legislative level. According to art. 56 and 57 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, an employment contract is not executed without specifying working conditions. They are fixed along with the rest of the information - full name, salary.
In Art.56 states that the employer must ensure the established working conditions at the workplace. And according to Art. 57 it is necessary to single out the characteristics of the working conditions in the agreement, the harmful factors that may be in production. Separately stipulated compensation and guarantees.
The production process is the work of obtaining products from matter or raw materials. All stages of this activity are interrelated. The nature of the process is determined by the type:
- Used labor.
- Means of production.
- Starting materials.
Having determined the main means of production, you canset the type of process. Suppose it is known that the main machine is a metallurgical plant. Then it will be clear that there is an activity with metal, ore. The workforce will be metallurgists, steelworkers. From this, you can determine the safety requirements and possible types of occupational diseases of employees.
This concept is called the space whereemployee performs work. Environment implies buildings, means of production, applied transport. This concept includes psychological and environmental conditions. They have an impact on the staff.
This concept implies the tension of a worker.process. It implies a psychological side. Intensity is related to performance. In an unorganized place, the tension is high and the productivity is low. This is a negative point. Employees get tired quickly, and the results are not encouraging.
Working conditions at the workplace are divided by law into 4 classes (Art. 14 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation):
- Optimal. When they have a negative impact on employees is missing or very low.
- Valid. Probably some negative impact, but within the established norms.
- Harmful. In this case, there is an excess of the influence of negative factors on the body. Probably the emergence of occupational diseases.
- Dangerous. Employees are affected by negative factors of production. There is a high risk of occupational diseases.
Determining the class of working conditions in the workplaceneed to determine the level of harmfulness of activity. At each job they are different. They are important to consider before you get employed. Harmful working conditions during working hours have a negative effect on human well-being and health. Therefore, it is important at every enterprise that the norms of the organization of the process are respected.
Какими должны быть условия труда на рабочем месте at the office, at work? When performing a professional activity, it is important that employees feel comfortable and convenient. Then the results will be high. Many factors affect the workflow, the main ones being:
- Lighting: normal 1-2 thousand lum.
- Temperature - the more physical activity, the lower the rate in the room. With active work, the optimum level will be 10-16 degrees, and with an average - 18-23 degrees.
- Noise. 65 decibels and a frequency of 75,000 Hertz are considered normal. The noise level will be high if it exceeds 88 decibels.
- Vibration. Such impacts are local and general. Vibration is associated with noise.
There are other factors - biological and chemical. An example of a negative characteristic of working conditions is a high concentration of dust and toxic components.
За аттестацию условий рабочих мест отвечает employer. A special institution participates in this event. A special commission is created, including an employer, an occupational safety specialist, and members of trade unions. Certification of workplaces for working conditions involves the inspection of the organization and the collection of information.
Factors are measured during the event.environment - noise, lighting, vibration. Set deviations from the norm. If jobs are similar to each other, then you can check one similar place. Certification of workplaces for working conditions is planned and unscheduled.
Плановое мероприятие выполняется каждые 5 лет.Attestation of workers on working conditions allows you to make work more efficiently, if after the event all the expert's comments are taken into account. Unscheduled inspection is carried out at various changes in the production process. These include the replacement of equipment, transfer to another technical process. In case of an accident, an unscheduled inspection is performed. In conclusion, the assessment of working conditions of workplaces is prescribed.
What is prescribed in the contract?
Organization of working conditions in the workplaceis the responsibility of management. In the labor agreement must be information about which class the work belongs to. For this, a section with the title “Labor protection” is assigned. It indicates whether conditions are considered "optimal" or "dangerous." In the first case, it is indicated that all norms are observed, there are no harmful conditions at the workplace.
With 3 and 4 class it is fixed that conditions are harmfulfor good health. The contract specifies the class, subclass, factors that led to the deterioration of the situation. For example, hazardous conditions have arisen due to the high level of noise and low temperature.
The main document on the assessment of conditions is considered the Federal LawNo. 426. It establishes the essence of the event, the rules for its implementation and application of the results. Evaluation is a procedure, the results of which can influence the activity of an organization in various ways, as well as the development and improvement of personnel policy.
If harmful jobs are found, the company may have liabilities, for example:
- Providing employees with social preferences established by law of the Russian Federation.
- Payment of higher contributions to the FIU and FSS.
Evaluation may reveal objective defects inareas of personnel security, the elimination of which increases productivity and favorably affects the business as a whole. It is only necessary to fulfill the instructions of the specialists provided by the results of the event.
Even if the institution is not ready to carry out an assessment, this task is done according to the law. The stages of the event include:
- Appeal to a specialized company that has permission to perform such activities.
- Identification by this company of production factors. Definition of hazard classes of workplaces.
- Registration of the verification report.
List of criteria to be metfirms performing the assessment, established ch. 3 FL №426. In practice, such an institution is easier to find with the help of the register of organizations that carry out work in the field of labor protection accredited by the Ministry of Labor.
Условия на рабочем месте и мотивация персонала closely interrelated. If the activities of employees are complex, and there are also harmful factors, the institution should encourage employees. Typically, staff motivation is material reward. Then the efficiency of the enterprise will be much better.
In Art.224 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation states that compensation is required for the additional load received from harmful factors. This may be additional leave and wage supplements. The amounts of the premium set Art. 147 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. Her minimum is 4% salary.
Deterioration of conditions
Если сотрудник заметил негативные изменения, а the employer ignores the comments, it is necessary to contact the union to carry out the new certification. With further disregard may impose heavy fines.
If changes are household, for example, faultylighting, you need to inform the occupational health and safety specialist. In this case, it is important to perform the repair, elimination of the defect without loss of quality. Removing a flaw will improve the situation.
Labor safety is considered an important partworkflow. It includes many factors, on the basis of which a classification is created. The safest is considered the "optimal class", and harmful - "dangerous." In the contract all this should be spelled out. Failure to comply with the law leads to the accountability of the management of the enterprise.