Modern psychological science singles out such aan interesting phenomenon, as a social facilitation. This term was introduced at the beginning of the last century by scientists N. Tripplet and F. Allport. They in due time have developed the whole concept, allowing to understand, why the person, being in group of the certain people, acts this or that way. It turns out that very many features of behavior depend on such things as temperament, propensity to communicate, a habit of isolation.
The main factors of social facilitationare clearly expressed aspirations to create a positive impression of themselves, to receive approval from the public. A person whose life passes within the framework of social norms and practices will be struggling to meet the duties assigned to him. He will try to justify the expectations of colleagues and superiors even when it is uncomfortable and does not bring joy to his own personality.
The essence of the concept
Social facilitation is athe mechanism of the personality's behavior when it has the ability to act fairly successfully and make the right decisions in the environment of society. If a person remains alone with himself, then some tasks of the same level of complexity are perceived by him as more difficult. That is, the effect of social support and approval comes into play. We all need to be seen and heard by society in varying degrees. No one wants to live so independently that it is not concerned with any social attitudes and stereotypes. We are more inclined to listen to the opinion of the majority and draw our own conclusions from this.
Social facilitation in psychology is a phenomenonthin enough and individual. For each person, the absence or presence of support from the community will affect differently. Someone prefers to work alone, and people prevent it, constantly scurrying back and forth. There are people who do not like to listen to instructions, they rely only on their own knowledge, skills and preferences. It is important for another to feel interaction with colleagues and colleagues throughout the whole period of work. Although this will not help much in the work, the main thing is that the person is not alone. In other words, the phenomenon of social facilitation lies in the fact that a person feels more confident when someone is interested in and supports it with his activities.
Phenomenon of positive expectation
The effect of social facilitation is closely related to the fact that,what a person expects from society, how much it is oriented at all to his opinion. When surrounding people tend to encourage a person, support him in many endeavors, then the individual feels that it is much easier and easier for him to carry out his daily tasks. The phenomenon of positive expectation assumes that the individual will try to make a positive impression on the people around to get all sorts of benefits. When a person feels in society in demand and accepted, it becomes much easier for him to perceive himself and strive for any goals. Social facilitation in psychology is a concept that determines the degree of success of a person in a particular situation. Each of us throughout life strives to create around him the most comfortable conditions.
This is the opposite phenomenon that arises in a situation,when at the moment of interaction with society in the performance of a specific task, the individual feels himself lost and insecure. There is growing anxiety, there is a fear of doing something wrong, making a mistake. This phenomenon is in fact not uncommon. For people whose inner world is distinguished by a particular individuality, it is extremely important to feed oneself with one's own energy, while a stranger can harm and interfere.
Phenomena of social facilitation and inhibition -phenomena are opposite, but at the same time are closely related to each other. If the first concept implies involvement in social life, the latter most often demonstrates some freedom from social interaction in general. Such a life live creative people: writers, musicians, artists. Social facilitation and inhibition are two opposite poles. If it is important and important for a person to work individually, then all kinds of interventions and tips from other people can cause him considerable irritation and dissatisfaction. Social inhibition suggests that individuals are better guided by their own opinions, attitudes and motives. The presence of other people at the time of working activity can only hurt. The productivity of labor will not only worsen, it will not reflect the degree of giftedness of the individual.
The power of psychological pressure
We all live in a society that can not failto exert a significant influence on us. Most people do not act in the way they really want, but as circumstances require. The strength of the psychological impact of society on the individual is so great that sometimes he does not manage to recognize his own desires and motives.
The phenomenon of social facilitation here hasgreat importance. It is important for some people to feel support from their inner circle. It is through this kind of moral help that they can perform their work more qualitatively and fully. If such a person leaves one with a difficult task, then, of course, he will cope with it. However, he will need more time to understand the essence of the problem, solve all the issues that arise.
The phenomenon of loneliness
When a person counts only on himself,he gets used to acting alone. Gradually, the presence of a number of colleagues and close associates can greatly affect the results of activities. Such a person gets used to concentrating as much as possible on work and is not distracted by trifles. Increasing demands for oneself, strict discipline and responsibility are developed.
The phenomenon of evaluation
Being in society, a person is inclined tomost of the time, obey the laws that exist in it. In this case, the evaluation effect works. Personality begins to think about how it will be perceived by other people, what opinion they will have as a result of certain actions, actions. Social facilitation in this particular case is manifested as an expected praise or blame, as a result of which the productivity of the activities performed increases significantly.
Effect of publicity
The person who lives in society, alwaysseeks to make a good, positive impression on others. We sometimes can not make decisions on our own in the sense that we constantly look back at the opinion of the majority. The effect of social facilitation compels us to follow social attitudes and to orient ourselves to his requests. So it turns out that a person begins to live the requirements of society, forgetting about their own needs. This gives rise to inner dissatisfaction, a sense of lostness and personal unrealization.
The effect of publicity is expressed in the fact that,being in society, the person begins to act according to the expectations assigned to her. It does not do anything superfluous, but behaves quite adequately for each specific situation.
Extraverts and introverts
People need society in varying degrees.If extroverts can not live without social interaction, then introverts perfectly manage without it for quite a long time. The first draw inspiration through communication with people, the latter see an inexhaustible source of grace in themselves. Interaction with others can make them very tired, deprive forces and new opportunities.
Properties of temperament
It is known that sanguine people are easier than othersadapt to changing conditions. Choleric people tend to act impulsively, make rash steps. Phlegmatic people are calm and reasonable, and melancholic people are characterized by emotional instability and excessive impressionability. What impact does social facilitation have on all four types? An example can be given such: at the first difficulties the melancholy is inclined to immediately become isolated in itself, the phlegmatic tries to spread everything "on the shelves", the sanguine actively and productively acts, and the choleric is loudly indignant.
What is this concept like itis associated with social facilitation? Laziness manifests itself when there is no positive evaluation by other participants in the activity. If the person is not encouraged in any way, she will not want to work in fullness of her abilities. Social laziness lies in the fact that a person will never make additional efforts if he does not see in them a sense and purpose. In the absence of a meaningful evaluation, a person often closes in himself or begins to work just enough to not cause suspicion on the part of colleagues and colleagues. Laziness neutralizes the effect of such a concept as social facilitation. Examples from life show that in the absence of due attention and support from the authorities, people generally stop trying, to show themselves at work on the best side, because they do not see the sense and necessity.
Each of us wants to feel that his work is notis vain. If there is a goal for which a person makes certain steps, then any obstacles seem surmountable. There are even additional forces to implement the plans. In the case of serious conflicts, misunderstandings on the part of society, a sharp, critical non-acceptance of the results of the individual's work, there are conflicting feelings that interfere with full-fledged action.
Public institutions, which includekindergartens and schools, teach a little person from an early age to understand what other people expect from him. Each of us knows the method of encouragement and punishment, successfully applied in society. The child, getting into a certain social environment, immediately learns to live by her laws. From childhood, a person is offered (or rather, imposed) a specific model of behavior, according to which he will live in the future.
Socio-educational facilitation isin that a person from a young age learns to perceive themselves as part of society. The society makes certain demands on him, for which he involuntarily has to adjust. With this approach, the personality often loses its own individuality, does not know how to implement it in the future.
Thus, social facilitation stands outa kind of link between the aspirations of man himself and social attitudes. It is very important to be able to find a balance between these two poles, then the personality will become holistic and harmonious.