A pronoun is a special class of significantwords that point to an object without naming it. To avoid tautology in speech, the speaker can use a pronoun. Examples: I, your, who, this, everyone, most, all, myself, my, other, other, that, somehow, somebody, something, etc.
As you can see from the examples, pronouns are most often used instead of the noun, as well as instead of the adjective, numerals or adverbs.
Pronouns are characterized by division into categoriesby value. This part of speech is oriented to names. In other words, pronouns replace nouns, adjectives, numerals. However, the peculiarity of pronouns is that, when replacing names, they do not acquire their significance. According to the established tradition, only pronounced words refer to pronouns. All unchangeable words are considered as pronominal adverbs.
In this article, the categories of pronouns in terms of meaning and grammatical features will be presented, as well as examples of sentences in which certain pronouns are used.
Table of pronouns by category
I, you, we, you, he, she, it, they, they
The return pronoun
my, your, our, your, your
The demonstrative pronouns
this, one, one, so many
himself, all, every, every, any, other, other
who, what, what, who, whose, how much, what
who, what, how, what, which, whose, how much, what
no one, nothing, no one, no one, no one, nothing
someone, something, some, some, some, some, somebody, somebody, somebody, something, some, some, some
According to grammatical features pronouns are divided into three categories:
- Pronominal nouns.
- Pronominal adjectives.
- Pronominal numerals.
Words indicating the person and objects that areare participants in the speech act, are called "personal pronouns." Examples: I, you, we, you, you, he, she, it, they. I, you, we, you designate participants in speech communication. Pronouns he, she, they do not participate in the speech act, they are reported to the speaker as non-participants in the act of speech.
- I know about what you want to tell me. (Participant of the speech act, object.)
- You should read all the fiction from the list. (The subject to which the action is directed.)
- We had a wonderful vacation this year! (Participants in the speech act, subjects.)
- You have perfectly played your part! (The addressee, the object to which the appeal is directed in the speech act.)
- He prefers a quiet pastime. (A non-participant of a speech act.)
- She surely will go to America this summer? (A non-participant of a speech act.)
- They for the first time in their life skipped with a parachute and were very satisfied. (A non-participant of a speech act.)
Attention! The pronouns of it, its, them depending on the context can be used both in the rank of possessive, and in the category of personal pronouns.
- He was not in school today either on the first orthe last lesson. - His academic performance at school depends on how often he will attend classes. (In the first sentence it is a personal pronoun in the genitive case, in the second sentence is a possessive pronoun.)
- I asked her to keep this conversation between us. - She ran, her hair developed in the wind, and the silhouette was lost and lost with every second, moving away and dissolving in the light of the day.
- They should always be asked to make the music quieter. "Their dog often howls at night, as if yearning for some unbearable grief."
The return pronoun
This category includes the pronoun itself - indicates the face of the object or the addressee, which is identified with the actor. Returning pronouns perform this function. Sample sentences:
- I always considered myself the happiest in the whole world.
- She constantly admires herself.
- He does not like to make mistakes and trusts only himself.
Can I leave this kitten at home?
The word indicating the belonging of a person or an object to another person or object is called "possessive pronoun". Example: my, your, our, your, your. Possessive pronouns indicate that they belong to a speaker, an interlocutor or a non-participant of an act of speech.
- My the decision is always the most correct.
- Your wishes will necessarily be fulfilled.
- Our the dog behaves very aggressively towards passers-by.
- Is yours the choice will remain with you.
- Finally I got his gift!
- Their leave your thoughts to yourself.
- My the city misses me, and I feel like I miss it.
Words such as her, his, theirs can act as a personal pronoun in the accusative case or as possessive pronoun. Sample sentences:
- Their the car is at the entrance. - They were not in the city for 20 years.
- Him the bag lies on a chair. - He was asked to bring tea.
- Her the house is located in the center of the city. "She was made the queen of the evening."
The belonging of a particular person (object) to a group of objects is also indicated by a possessive pronoun. Example:
- Our joint trips will be remembered for a long time!
The demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative is the second name, which has a demonstrative pronoun. Examples: this one, that one, so much. These words distinguish one or another object (person) from a number of other similar objects, persons or signs. This function is performed by the demonstrative pronoun. Examples:
- This The novel is much more interesting and informative than all those that I read before. (Pronoun this identifies one item from a series of similar ones, indicates the peculiarity of this item.)
Pronoun this also performs this function.
- it sea, these the mountains, this the sun will forever remain in my memory the brightest memory.
However, one should be careful with the definition of the part of speech and not confuse the demonstrative pronoun with the particle!
Compare examples of demonstrative pronouns:
- it it was excellent! - Did you play the role of a fox in a school play? (In the first case, this is a pronoun and plays the syntactic role of the predicate. In the second case this - the particle has no syntactic role in the sentence.)
- Thats the house is much older and more beautiful than this one. (Pronoun that highlights the subject, points to it.)
- Neither suchNo other option would suit him. (Pronoun such helps to concentrate on one of many things.)
- So many once he stepped on the same rake, and again he repeated everything anew. (Pronoun so many underlines the repeated nature of the action.)
Examples of pronouns: himself, all, every, every, any, other, other. This category is divided into sub-categories, each of which includes the following pronouns:
1. Himself the most - pronouns that have an excretory function. They elevate the object in question, individualize it.
- Himself Director - Alexander Yaroslavovich - attended the party.
- He was offered the most highly paid and prestigious work in our city.
- The most Great happiness in life - to love and be loved.
- Self Her Majesty condescended to me.
2. Whole - a pronoun that has the meaning of the breadth of the characteristic of a person, object or trait.
- Whole the city came to see his performance.
- All the road passed in remorse and desire to return home.
- All the sky was covered with clouds, and there was not a single gap.
3. Every, every, every - pronouns denoting the freedom to choose from several objects, persons or characters (if they exist at all).
- Semyon Semenovich Laptev - the master of his craft - this is for you any will say.
- Any a person is able to achieve what he wants, the main thing is to make an effort and not be lazy.
- Each a blade of grass each the petal breathed life, and this desire for happiness was transmitted to me more and more.
- Any the word he uttered turned against him, but he did not seek to correct it.
4. Other - pronouns that have the meaning of non-identity to what was said earlier.
- I chose other the path that was more accessible to me.
- Imagine other in my place would do the same?
- AT other since he will come home, silently eat and go to bed, today everything was different ...
- The medal has two sides - other I did not notice.
Examples of pronouns: who, what, what, which, whose, how much, what.
Interrogative pronouns encompass the question of persons, objects or phenomena, quantities. At the end of the sentence, which contains the interrogative pronoun, a question mark is usually put.
- Who was the man who came to us this morning?
- what will you do when the summer exams end?
- What there must be a portrait of an ideal person, and how do you imagine him?
- Which the of these three people could know what really happened?
- Whose is it a briefcase
- How much is a red dress, in which did you come to school yesterday?
- What kind of What is your favorite season?
- Whose I saw a child in the yard yesterday?
- how Do you think I need to go to the Faculty of International Relations?
Examples of pronouns: who, what, how, what, which, whose, how much, what.
Attention!These pronouns can act as both relative and interrogative pronouns, depending on whether they are used in a given context. In the complex sentence (SPP) is used exclusively relative pronoun. Examples:
- how Are you making a cherry pie cake? - She told how she prepares a cake with cherry filling.
In the first case as - pronoun, has an interrogative function, i.e. the subject concludes the question of a certain object and the method of its obtaining. In the second case, the pronoun as used in the role of relative pronouns and acts as a connecting word between the first and second simple sentences.
- Who knows in which one does the Volga flow into the sea? - He did not know who this man was to him, and what could have been expected from him.
- What needs to be done to get a good job? - He knew what to do in order to get a high-paying job.
What - the pronoun - is used both as a relative and interrogative pronoun, depending on the context.
- what are we going to do tonight? - You said that today we have to visit our grandmother.
To accurately determine the rank of pronouns,choosing between relative and interrogative, you need to remember that the interrogative pronoun in the sentence can be replaced by a verb, a noun, a numeral depending on the context. Relative pronouns cannot be replaced.
- what do you want dinner tonight? - Vermicelli, I would like for dinner.
- Which one Do you like the color? - Do you like purple?
- Whose is it a house - Is this mother's house?
- Which the on account you're in line? “Are you the eleventh in line?”
- how many do you have candy? - Do you have six candies?
A similar situation with the pronoun than. Compare examples of relative pronouns:
- What to do on the weekend? - He completely forgot what I wanted to do on the weekend. (As we can see, in the second variant the pronoun than enters the category of relative and performs a linking function between the two parts of a complex sentence.)
- How did you get to my house yesterday? - Anna Sergeyevna questioningly looked at the boy and did not understand how he got into her house.
- What is it like to realize that you're in trouble? - I know for myself what it is to realize that your plans are crumbling rapidly and irrevocably.
- Which time do I ask you not to do this again? “She has already lost the bill, which her son brought his class teacher to tears.
- Whose car is parked at the gate of my house? - He was at a loss, so he could not figure out whose idea was to provoke a fight.
- How much is this Persian kitten? - He was told how much a red Persian kitten costs.
- Who knows what year the battle of Borodino took place? - Three students raised their hands: they knew in what year the battle of Borodino took place.
Some scholars suggest combining relative and interrogative pronouns into one category and calling them "interrogative-relative pronouns." Examples:
- Who is there? - He did not see who was here.
However, at present, it has not yet been possible to reach a general agreement, and the levels of interrogative and relative pronouns continue to exist separately from each other.
Examples of pronouns: no one, nothing, no, nobody, nobody, nothing, nothing. Negative pronouns mean the absence of persons, objects, as well as to denote their negative characteristics.
- No one did not know what to expect from him.
- Nothing He was not interested so much that he could devote his whole life to this work.
- No debt and none money could not keep him from escaping.
- A lonely dog ran along the road, and it seemed that she had never had a host, home and tasty food in the morning; She was draw.
- He tried to find excuses for himself, but it turned out that everything happened precisely on his initiative, and no one was to blame for this.
- He was perfect there is nothing to do, so he walked slowly in the rain past the luminous windows of the shops and watched the oncoming traffic cars.
From interrogative or relative pronouns, an indefinite pronoun is formed. Examples: someone, something, some, some, some, someone, someone, somebody, something, some, some. Indefinite pronouns containvalue of an unknown, indefinite person or object. Also, indefinite pronouns have the meaning of intentionally hidden information that the speaker does not specifically want to communicate.
Such properties has an indefinite pronoun. Examples for comparison:
- Someone's the voice rang out in the dark, and I did not quite understand to whom it belonged: to a man or to a beast. (The speaker has no information.) - This letter was from my no one a friend who had been absent from our city for a long time and was about to come. (Intentionally hidden information from the audience.)
- Something the unbelievable happened that night: the wind tore and the metal from the trees, lightning flashed and pierced the sky through. (Instead something can be substituted for the meaning of the indefinite pronouns: something, something.)
- Some of my friends consider me a strange and wonderful person: I don’t aspire to make a lot of money and live in a small old house on the edge of the village. (Pronoun some can be replaced by the following pronouns: some, several.)
- Some pairs of shoes, a backpack, and a tent were already laid and waited for us to get together and go far, far away from the city. (The subject does not specify the number of items, summarizes their number.)
- Someone informed me that you received a letter, but do not want to admit to uTom. (The speaker deliberately hides all information about the face.)
- If anyone Saw this person, please report it to the police!
- Anybody knows what Natasha Rostov and Andrei Bolkonsky were talking about at the ball?
- When you see anything interesting, do not forget to write down your observations in a notebook.
- Some the moments in learning English remained incomprehensible to me, then I went back to the last lesson and tried to go through it again. (Intentional concealment of information by the speaker.)
- Some I still had money in my wallet, but I didn’t remember how much. (Lack of information about the subject from the speaker.)
Grammar digits of pronouns
Grammatically, pronouns are divided into three categories:
- Pronoun noun.
- Pronoun adjective.
TO pronoun noun относятся такие разряды местоимений, как:personal, refundable, interrogative, negative, uncertain. All these digits in their grammatical properties are likened to nouns. However, pronoun nouns have certain features that the pronoun does not have. Examples:
- I came to you. (In this case, this is the masculine gender, which wedetermined by the past tense verb with zero ending). - You came to me. (Gender is determined at the end of the verb "came" - female gender, past tense.)
As can be seen from the example, some pronouns are devoid of the gender category. In this case, the genus can be restored logically, based on the situation.
Other pronouns of the listed digits have the category of gender, but it does not reflect the real relations of persons and objects. For example, the pronoun Who always combined with the masculine verb of the past tense.
- Who of women first traveled in space?
- Ready or not, here I come.
- She knew who would be the next challenger for her hand and heart.
The pronoun that uses with the nouns of the past tense.
- What allowed you to do this act?
- He did not suspect that something similar to his story could have happened somewhere.
Pronoun he has generic forms, but the genus here appears as a classification form, and not as a nominative.
TO pronoun adjective include indicative, determinative, interrogative, relative, negative, indefinite pronouns. They all answer the question which one? and are likened to adjectives by their properties. They possess dependent forms of number and case.
- This tiger is the most frisky in the zoo.
Pronouns are pronouns as much as several. They are likened to numerals in their meaning in combination with nouns.
- How many books have you read this summer?
- So many opportunities now I had!
- Grandma left a few hot pies for me.
Attention! However, in conjunction with the verb pronouns how many used as adverbs.
- How much is this orange blouse?
- So much to spend only on vacation.
- I thought a little about how to live and what to do next.