The causes of the fragmentation of Russia (as well as all other European countries
The reasons for the fragmentation of ancient Russia
The medieval state of the Russians was notsomething sharply different from the all-European countries. And there and there was a lot of similar processes. The reasons for the fragmentation of Rus were also concealed in the fact that vassals in their own patrimonies were able to gain considerable independence from the central city and, as a result, to intensify in all respects. The nominal ruler of the Capital of Russia was the Prince of Kiev, and his vassals - the various princes of the unit (Chernihiv, Volyn, Suzdal and other). However, during the XII - XIII centuries, the size of the landed boyar plots increased intensively, as did the number of peasants dependent on the boyars. In a natural way, this made them more powerful, deprived of any need to hold onto the patronage of the prince of Kiev. At the same time, friendship with the local prince was considered very useful.
Such a pattern was in no small measure accompanied bya weak economic connection between different regions of the country and the absence of particularly significant and necessary trade ties. The feudal disintegration was also conditioned by the size of the state. The country was extremely difficult to keep in one power. In this period, cities are growing, which are increasingly advocating the expansion of self-government and the reduction of dependence on princely structures. Thus, the reasons for the fragmentation of Russia lay mainly in the weak economic connection between the regions, as well as in the natural striving of the provincial forces towards independence. The last prince of Kiev, who still managed to keep the Russian lands in unity, was the son of Vladimir Monomakh - Mstislav. However, after his death, which happened in 1132, the country finally disintegrates into a number of virtually independent principalities.
And the consequences of the fragmentation of Russia
The lands of the Eastern Slavs during this period becamerepresent a number of large independent principalities. Strengthening of local ruling courts and noble families gave the Russian land the Novgorod Republic, Galicia-Volyn and Vladimir-Suzdal principalities, the rise and rise of Moscow. As in the rest of Europe, feudal fragmentation in Russia after a few centuries was replaced by centralization, and later, by the absolutization of the tsarist government.