In modern Russian, English and allother languages there is indirect and direct speech. Competent possession of them allows you to correctly convey on the letter said by someone. Therefore, for native speakers and those who study it, it is extremely important to understand the concepts of direct and indirect speech and to apply them correctly in practice. Another important thing is that in Russian there are quite complex rules of punctuation, and, depending on the topic, punctuation marks are placed differently.
Unfortunately, a huge number of people who study the Russian language admit wrong construction of sentences with indirect speech.
So, let's start with the definitions. What is indirect or direct speech? Direct speech is a text that is literally transmitted on behalf of the speaker without any modifications.
Indirect speech is a way to include someone else's words in your own text, preserving their original meaning. It can be said in understandable language that this is a sort of retelling of words belonging to a third party.
Direct speech from indirect to writing is differentthe presence of words of the author and actually the most direct speech. The author's words indicate the person to whom the above statement belongs. It is important to note that Russian speakers often make mistakes in constructing sentences with indirect speech. And especially this topic is given to foreigners studying Russian.
Next, we will consider in detail the rules for applying both types of speech, both direct and indirect. Let's pay attention to punctuation marks and on features of construction of offers with the named designs.
Rules for the use of indirect speech
To make sentences with indirect speech,It is necessary to study the rules of punctuation in such situations. It should be noted that the indirect speech in the compound sentence, as a rule, acts as a subordinate part. The fictitious part, which contains indirect speech, can join the main one with the help of some unions and allied words:
- which the;
- as if;
- where and others.
Union and the corresponding words for indirect speech
The "what" union is used in speech to replace the narrative sentence and expresses the speaker's confidence that the information is reliable:
- He replied that he did not want to go to university, because he hated him with all his heart.
Or, for example, such unions as: "as if" and "as if", can indicate that the speaker in some way doubts the reliability of the information that he sets out:
- Grandfather said that he was in France the day before yesterday at an exhibition.
As for such relative words as:"which", "what", "what", "where", "where", and the like, they are used in those situations when there is a replacement for direct speech without any changes to sentences with indirect speech. Examples:
- Dinah said that she loves Nikita with all her heart, but the fact that he acts inappropriately with Alina is very distressing and makes her think.
- Grandfather, passing me on the boulevard, stopped and asked where the nearest pharmacy is located.
Punctuation marks in sentences with indirect speech: rules
Let's list some rules of statement of punctuation marks in sentences with indirect speech.
It is important to note that sometimes in indirect speech one can find word-by-word expressions from the speech of another person. They are marked with letters in quotes.
If the direct speech contains an incentive proposal, then the "to" union is applied when using sentences with indirect speech. Examples:
- He said that I bring water to my grandfather, because the weather is very terrible.
- Mom ordered the maid to immediately wash the floors in our house.
If in direct speech there are no interrogative pronouns and adverbs, then, as a rule, when using indirect speech a union-particle "li" is used. For example:
- Grandmother asked if I knew who Joseph Stalin was, and I, of course, answered her.
But if a direct speech contains interrogative pronouns and adverbs, then by replacing it with an indirect one they are transformed into union words.
As for the replacement of personal pronouns, when using indirect speech, they are used in accordance with the one who conveys the speech of the other person.
As a rule, sentences with an indirect speech are located after the author's words and on the letter should be allocated with the help of a comma.
Rules for the use of direct speech
To convey a direct speech, you must adhere to certain rules. So, if a direct speech begins with a paragraph, then it must be put in front of it. For example:
- Lena fell and started yelling:
- Ah-I-I-I-y, it hurts me!
If direct speech does not begin with a paragraph, but goes to a line, then you need to put a colon in front of it, and after it - quotes. For example:
- Alice jumped with happiness and shouted: "Hooray, finally I got a diploma!"
But it is worth noting that in the situation with quotes that are in the subordinate part of the sentence, the colon does not need to be put. For example:
- Psychologist David Dunning wrote that "incompetent people have a tendency to unambiguous and categorical conclusions."
Proposal schemes with indirect speech and direct
The conditional designations for drawing up schemes of sentences with direct speech are the capital letters "A" and "P". The letter "A" indicates the words of the author, and the letter "P" refers directly to direct speech. For example:
- Dasha said: "Get out of this room!"
Schematically it will look something like this: A: "P!"
As for sentences with indirect speech, then, as a rule, their schemes look like schemes of ordinary simple and complex sentences.
Syntactic analysis of sentences
Syntactic analysis of the proposal with an indirectspeech and direct conducted in order to be sure one hundred percent of the correctness of the placed punctuation marks. That is, syntactic analysis helps to orient more deeply in the topic and correctly use sentences with direct and indirect speech.
This parse is performed in the following sequence:
- It is necessary to determine where the words of the author, and where the direct speech.
- Make a syntactic analysis of the author's words.
- Explain the statement of punctuation marks.
Punctuation in direct speech: rules
In a situation where a direct speech stands in the middle of the construction and is broken by the words of the author, before them and after is a dash:
- "I want with you," whispered Nicholas, "to go to the end of the world!"
If the author's words are located at the junction of the two sentences, then before the author's words put first comma, and then dash. After the words of the author it is necessary to put a dot and one more dash:
- "Nina, what are you doing?" Andrei asked. "You're crazy!"
Common errors in the use of indirect and direct speech
Wrong construction of sentences with indirectspeech occurs more and more often. With this, of course, it is necessary to fight. But how? The answer is simple: you need to periodically repeat the elementary rules that teachers gave us in the far fifth grade.
After all, if even Russian speakers dogross and stupid mistakes, then what can we say about those who study Russian as a foreign language ?! They try to communicate more with native speakers in order to better navigate in it. But what foreigners will learn, if the carriers sometimes make unpardonable mistakes in their speech ?!
It is necessary to get rid of mistakes immediately. Even B.The show in his work "Pygmalion" severely criticized people with disgusting speech. He said that it is inexcusable and disgusting for educated people to say this way.
Often allowed errors in the construction of sentences with indirect and direct speech
So, below are the most common mistakes and incorrect construction of sentences with indirect speech and direct. Errors are often made when too bulky constructions are used.
- Too many accessory parts:
Я взяла одеяло, которое мне подарила бабушка Galya, and saw on it a huge hole, which probably was left by my cat, which was presented to me by my father in honor of his birthday, when I celebrated it in the water park.
It would be correct to divide this construction into several sentences:
I took the blanket my grandmother gave me.Galya, and saw on him a huge hole. She was probably left by my cat, presented to me by my father's birthday. Birthday that time I celebrated in the water park.
- Use identical syntaxes:
Lena said she does not like sweets, and LenaI bought a bunch of tasteless sour fruits, and then she walked along the road with them, and the fruits crumbled and crashed on the asphalt, and Lena started screaming, but she wanted to eat these fruits.
In order for this proposal to sound nice and beautiful, it needs to be divided into several structures:
Lena said she didn’t like sweets and boughta bunch of tasteless sour fruits. But when she was walking along the road with them, the fruit fell to the asphalt and broke. Lena started screaming because she wanted to eat them.
- The incorrect construction of a sentence with indirect speech can also be expressed in such a phenomenon as the displacement of a structure in complex sentences:
The last thing she said was about our appearance of divorce, about our problems and how she hates me.
For contrast, we give this sentence in the correct version:
The last thing she said was our upcoming divorce and our problems, and how much she hates me.
The importance of correct use of sentences with indirect and direct speech
An interesting fact is that eachman has his own way of building sentences. For example, someone prefers to use subordinate parts frequently, someone uses simple constructions, someone heaps his speech with introductory words, etc. However, you should always be aware of how you speak. Perhaps you prefer a style that is completely wrong. It is therefore important to know the rules and combine them with their preferences in speech.
It was not for nothing that the great ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle said that "speech must comply with the laws of logic."