Styles of speech are historically fixed in the languageforms of speech, characteristic of various types of communication. Each style is characterized by its own set of speech tools, relevant in a certain sphere, has its own genres, the purpose of use.
What are the styles of speech? Let's take a closer look at their classification.
Colloquial.This is the style on which we communicate everyday in our everyday life. He has his own spoken vocabulary, a large set of emotionally colored words (for example, "boy", "cool", etc.). In colloquial speech, the use of incomplete sentences is acceptable, the meaning of which is clear from the context, informal appeals. Genres of style can be a conversation or conversation (oral forms), notes, letters (written form).
Art style.Its purpose - to influence the readers, to shape their feelings and thoughts, using a variety of images. Genres of this style - prose, drama, poetry. In order to convey images, writers use all styles of speech, all the wealth of the Russian language.
The scientific style is intended to explain scientificworks, and his sphere of use is research and development. A distinctive feature of scientific speech is the abundance of terms - words that have a single, maximally precise, exhaustive meaning. To the genres of science can be attributed reports, textbooks, abstracts, scientific works.
The official-business style is intended for communicationcitizens with institutions or institutions among themselves. For this, protocols, service letters, laws, regulations, announcements, etc. are used. In this style, there are a lot of stamps (stable expressions), business vocabulary, official references.
Publicistic style has a strictly defined purpose. In Latin, the word means "state", "public". It is needed for:
- propagation of ideas;
- influence on public opinion;
- transfer of critical information with simultaneous impact on people;
- suggestion of ideas, views;
- motivation for certain actions;
The sphere of use of this style iscultural, social, economic, political relations. It is used in the media, oratorical speeches, agitational and political spheres. Features of the journalistic style of speech are
- logical narrative;
- imagery of speech resources;
- emotionality of performances;
- evaluation of the narrative;
- call for speeches.
It is only natural that emotional coloringstyle correspond not less emotional language means. Here, political and social vocabulary, various types of syntactic constructions are widely used. You can use calls, slogans, incentives.
Genres of journalism:
- speeches (oratory, judicial);
To some extent, the journalistic and scientific styles of speech are close. Both must reflect only proven facts, be reliable, strictly justified, specific.
Some articles or public appearanceseven built in the likeness of a scientific text. A thesis is put forward, followed by arguments, facts, examples. Then a conclusion is drawn. But, unlike the scientific, the journalistic style is characterized by high emotionality, tension, and often personal attitude to what is happening.
Unfortunately, modern journalists are not alwaysfulfill the requirements that are mandatory for publicists. Often their articles are based on unverified data, and to create a sensational material a part of the publicists uses knowingly false information.
Building his speech, addressing to someone, creatingartistic or scientific text, you need to remember: parts of speech are not invented by chance. The ability to convey your thoughts accurately and appropriately characterizes a person as an educated, cultured personality.