Speech occupies an important place in a person's life.With the help of it, people communicate, share and receive information. Therefore it is important that the speech was comprehensible to the interlocutor. Below we will consider such a phenomenon in the Russian language, as a tautology. Most often this term occurs in rhetoric and logic. What is tautology?
From the point of view of rhetoric and logic
What is a tautology from the point of view of such a science,as a rhetoric? In general, this term is of Greek origin, the translation of which means "repeating the same thing." In rhetoric, tautology is understood as a rhetorical figure, which consists of single-root words.
It is also the use of words that came fromother languages, but they mean the same thing. Precisely because words have one meaning, it is undesirable to use such constructions in speech, because they do not carry any new information. Such designs can be used as a stylistic device, but there should not be too many of them.
What is tautology in logic?The concept of this term is somewhat different: it denotes an expression that is true. Most often tautology in logic occurs when the concept is explained using the same concept.
That is, the term is used in the explanation, andis the repetition of the same words. But sometimes with the help of tautology they formulate the laws of logic. For example, "three divided by three equals three or does not equal?" Therefore, in logic, tautology does not always "clog up" speech.
Comparison with pleonasm
There is one term that looks like a tautology - this ispleonasm. Both of them denote redundancy in speech. But what is the difference between tautology and pleonasm? Despite the similar importance, there are significant differences between them.
Pleonasm is the use in words of words havinga similar lexical meaning within a single construction. For example, "The family went to rest in November." Most often, pleonasm can be found in folklore. But an important feature is that these words are not crooked, unlike tautology.
Tautology is the use of words that have oneroot or borrowed from other languages with one meaning. It is difficult not to use lexical repetitions in speech, because not all words can be chosen synonyms. So sometimes you have to use similar words.
How to avoid tautology in speech
Why is this phenomenon attributed to "speechweed "because it does not give any new information.It is difficult to listen to speech and read texts in which there are many repetitions.Therefore, in order to make it easier for you to convey information, you should try to avoid frequent lexical repetitions.
The reason for tautology is a low levelvocabulary. Therefore, reading of art and classical literature raises the level of your literacy. Also, you will learn how to correctly use synonyms in speech by enriching the vocabulary.
The following exercise will be useful:paraphrasing sentences by choosing synonyms for words. If it's hard for you, you can use the dictionary. So you can make your speech clean and competent.
Examples of lexical repetitions
Some repetitions of root words are sofirmly entered the everyday speech, which is difficult to notice. An example of tautology is the following expressions: "doing business", "cooking jam", "snow white snow." They can be rephrased as follows: "do something", "cook jam", "beautiful snow."
An example of tautology, when using words fromother languages that have a similar meaning, is the expression "evening serenade." The word "serenade" is of Italian origin and denotes an evening song. Therefore, it is better to replace this word with a "song".
Lexical repetitions in artistic speech
What is tautology in artistic speech?Lexical repetitions as a stylistic device are often used by the authors to make the text more expressive. Most often this is used in poetic speech.
Also, lexical repetition occurs in prose and folklore. This is used to focus the reader's attention on an event or details.
An important question is the correct spelling: tautology or taftology? It is correct to write a word with a consonant "B", and say - with an accent on the third syllable.
Tautology is most often considered a speech error,because the repetitions of the same do not carry any semantic load. An exception is literature, and only when this repetition is needed to enhance the impression of the reader. You can make your speech more literate if you read more fiction.
The most difficult to control tautologies withborrowed words. The dictionary will help you with this. Thanks to this you not only increase your vocabulary, but also expand your horizons. Try to find synonyms for words more often, and then your speech will become beautiful, understandable and literate.