The pronoun is part of the speech of the Russian language, whichin the school course of study is given a lot of time. And this is understandable, because this topic is quite extensive, and the replacement of names is not the only function of the pronoun. And in this regard, in the nineteenth century, G. Pavsky said: "The pronoun does not replace the name, but only hints at and points to it."
At the moment in the Russian language, the views of scientists onindependence of the subject of the Russian language are divided. Some consider it to be full and independent, and others distribute it, referring to other parts of speech.
And although the question remains controversial, in school the subject "Pronoun" opens to children an independent part of speech, which only corresponds to certain signs of nouns, numerals and adjectives.
At school, students are introduced to this componentRussian language, giving it the following definition: "A pronoun is an independent part of speech that can be used in place of the noun, adjective, adverb and numerals, determines the characteristics of an object, points to an object or phenomenon, changes by case and gender. , but does not name his name, and can act as any member in the proposal. "
- I (subject) want to dance.
- It is he (the predicate).
- Nikita is my (definition) son.
- The teacher called him (in addition) to the board.
- Until when (the word "what" as part of the circumstances) will all this continue?
So, to begin with, you need to figure out which questions the pronoun answers. The answer to this question is quite simple: what part of the speech replaces, those questions and answers.
Substitution of nouns
Pronouns-nouns answer the questions of the noun.
They also have a gender corresponding to the subject matter,which they indicate. And this object can be both animate and inanimate, have a single or plural number. In addition, such pronouns, whose questions "Who?" So what?", can vary depending on which case is used in the sentence, and if an indication is given to an object without its definition, then it answers the questions" who? "," what? "In oral utterances and on writing use the following substitute words : "you", "you", "he", "she", "they", "someone", "something", "someone" or "something".
|Pr.p.||about her||about him||about you|
Replacement of adjectives
Pronouns-adjectives answer questionsthis part of speech, taking from her all the grammatical features. As a rule, in the sentence when describing a phenomenon or an object, such substitute words are used: "such", "someone's", "most", "nobody's," "yours," "mine."
For example: "My (whose?) Flowers."
As well as pronouns with signsnoun, adjective pronouns can vary by birth, case and number and describe animate and inanimate objects and all kinds of phenomena.
|Im.p.||sort of||most||is yours||my|
|D.p.||to such||himself||your||to my|
|Pr.p.||about that||about the||about your||about my|
Replacement of numerals
Quite often in pronouns pronouns are replaced by numerals. In this case, this part of the speech answers the question "how much?" And points to an indefinite number: "many," "few," "several."
For example: "How much?" Of camomiles and a few (how many?) Of roses. "
Such pronouns also change by case, which in turn increases the list of questions to which it can respond.
|V.p.||so many, so many||several, several|
|Pr.n.||about so many||about several|
The first acquaintance of children with this part of the speechoccurs approximately in the second class, where a separate topic for the parts of speech is assigned, and the lesson of the Russian language is taught thereon. The pronoun, as a rule, is represented by the word "I" to children, and in the learning process they supplement the list.
Since the grammatical features of the pronoundo not form a single group, then they are divided into several categories relative to their syntactic role and significance. One such is personal, or, as they are also called, indicative, this is:
- 1st person - "I", "we";
- 2nd person - "you", "you";
- 3rd person - "she", "they", "he", "it".
It is on these pronouns that the first acquaintance ends, and students learn about other ranks in high school.
Such pronouns as "I" and "you" do not have eithergrammatical gender, nor plural, but "we" and "you" are used in the sense of "I and someone else" or "you and someone else". To determine the genus, one should consider who the author of the statement points to.
In the past, the word "we"used in relation to one person for giving speech solemnity, now it is used for irony. But the word "you" still exists as a form of politeness.
Pronouns of the third person are often personally-indicative, and therefore have a category of gender.
The return pronoun
4 class of the Russian language school programProvides familiarity of children with such a category of pronouns, as returnable, or complementary, pronouns. They have no gender, no number, no nominative case. However, such a pronoun is tipped according to the type of the word "you" and is used in the sentence as a supplement only in indirect cases. To determine which questions the pronoun of this category corresponds to, it is necessary to understand its case.
This group, as well as personal pronouns,is divided into three persons. So, the first words are "my", "our", to the second - "your", "your", and the third person is defined by the word "your". The morphological characteristics of this group are that they can have both gender and number. They also lean on cases: "my", "your" and "your" tend like the adjective "blue", and "our", "your" - by the type of the word "senior".
In the accusative case in the plural, suchpronouns, as a rule, have two forms. For animate nouns use the words: "mine", "your", "your", "our", "your"; and for inanimate - "yours", "mine", "our", "your", "yours".
For example: "She saw her relatives, he found his books."
The demonstrative pronoun
4 class of the school program assumesacquaintance of children with this group of pronouns: "that", "this", "such", "such", "so much," "this," "such," "this." All these words are used to indicate an object, its sign or quantity from among homogeneous descriptions. Many of them can make an exclamation in the statement. For example: "You are such a cunning!"
Considering the demonstrative pronouns "that" and"this", it is easy to determine which one points to a near and far object or event. With respect to morphological features, these words can be used in different generic forms and numbers.
The pronouns "such" or "such" are most oftenare used to indicate the already mentioned object, its sign or action. These words also have the form of a kind and a number, and the change by case produces the word "Tver".
Interrogative-relative, negative and indefinite pronouns
The questions of such pronouns have many variations, andthe pronouns in the sentence appear as interrogative and relative words: "who", "which", "which," "what," "how many," "whose." For example: "Who's there knocking? What do you want?"
Morphological features of pronouns "who" and"what" is that they have neither gender nor number. "Who" in this case is used in relation to animate subject, and "what" is inanimate. The declension of the word "who" produces the words "this" and "this", and "what" - by the type of the word "all". Based on the change in case, it is possible to understand which questions the pronoun answers.
From this group of pronouns with the help of a prefix"non-", which is written together, the prefix "something", the particles "something", "or", "some", which are written through a hyphen, another series of words is formed that refer to an undefined category. These are such pronouns as "someone", "something", "something", "someone", "something", "some", "somebody", "some" and others similar combinations. Some of them may indicate animate, others have the form of gender and numbers. The pronoun "someone" always stands only in the nominative case and does not bow.
From the group of interrogative-relative pronounswith the help of the particles "no" and "no" another group is formed, it is called negative. What questions does the pronoun of this category have? The answer should already be clear: the question depends on the case. But the spelling here should be given special attention. So, if the negative particle of the pronoun is not divided with the preposition, then the word is written together. For example: "No one to blame. No one came." There was nothing to do. "
And from the put stress in these pronouns not only the meaning of the word depends, but also the particle that you need to use.
In case the negative particle is separated by a preposition, then it is written separately: "for no one", "there is nobody" and so on.
Proceeding from the above, it is not difficult to guess,to which questions the pronoun of the determining character is responsible. These are all the same questions of cases. The peculiarities of declination of such pronouns as "myself", "most", "all", "everyone", "everyone" and "other" are only in the difference of endings in the accusative case with animate and inanimate objects.