In the twelfth century the collapse of Kievan Rusin separate, independent from each other principality, but formally single state still continues to exist until the period Mongol invasion. While from 12 to the 16th century is considered to be a period of political fragmentation (feudal), Russia.
Political fragmentation of Russia: the prerequisites
Among modern historians are still being conducteddebate about what has become the true reason for the separation of a single strong state into several smaller and disparate ones. It is believed that the primary role in the historical process was played by the appearance of local boyars. The princes, ruling with separate Russian lands, did not want to share their income with the Prince of Kiev, the local boyars, stronger power was needed on the ground than ever, so it actively supported their position.
In addition, at the turn of 11-12 centuriesThe system of production of consumer goods, the structural unit of which is a separate patrimony. Over time, such patrimonies, available in different parts of the country, begin to produce products only for own consumption, but not for sale. As a result, commodity exchange between the lands of a single state practically ceases. Each territory under the control of an individual prince becomes completely autonomous and has the possibility of a prosperous existence without the support of neighboring lands.
A sedentary lifestyle, the development of plowedagriculture led to an increase in the power of the vigilantes on the ground. Gradually, the vigilantes are turning into landowners who are interested in making their possessions completely independent of state laws. In connection with this, a system of so-called immunities is developing, according to which the boyar landowners received complete independence from the Grand Duke, became full owners of their possessions, and had the right to establish certain laws on their territory. Hence the conclusion suggests that the political fragmentation of Rus was the result of the development of private landownership and the transition of the vigilantes to a settled way of life. By the middle of the 12th century, on the basis of a few decades ago, there were about fifteen independent princedoms. The number of independent lands from Kiev grows with great speed and by the 14th century it has reached two hundred and fifty. The largest state formations of this period of time are the Novgorod Republic, Galicia-Volyn, Vladimir-Suzdal Principalities. Each such principality is completely independent and independent of others, has its own monetary unit, a separate army, etc. Relations between the heads of all lands are regulated on the basis of agreements and traditions. Intestine wars, if they are, are very rare, at the heart of them - the desire to expand their lands at the expense of the territories of the neighboring principality.
Political fragmentation of Russia: the consequences
The main consequences of political fragmentation of Kievan Rus were:
- the development of new lands for the cultivation of grain, the development of the peasant economy;
- strengthening the power of the church, its influence on the cultural life of the country;
- folding a clear system of feudal hierarchy.
Agricultural development, rapid growthcities, the emergence of individual Russian principalities in the foreign policy arena, the development of architecture, chronicles - these are the consequences of the feudal fragmentation of Russia. In addition, the complete political disintegration of the state never took place. The power of the Kievan princes always existed, albeit very ghostly. The Orthodox faith throughout the entire period of fragmentation united the people of all the Russian principalities, the leadership of the whole church organization was in the hands of the Kiev Metropolitan. Before the external danger, the Kiev prince acted as the only defender of the Russian state. The political fragmentation of Russia has become an important stage in the development of the state on the path to its future centralization, political and economic take-off.