The history of our Fatherland is so deeply in the past that many of our contemporaries do not even think about the question of why Moscow has become the center of the unification of the Russian lands.
Many factors contributed to this, some of which we will try to address in this article.
How and when did Moscow originate?
The state of Kievan Rus, created by the descendants of Rurik, his son, grandson and great-grandson Vladimir, was located on the lands of modern Ukraine, Belarus and southern Russia. Its center was the city of Kiev.
Its northern outskirts was the land of the Eastern Slav-Vyatichi and Finno-Finns, the future land of the ancient city of Moscow. Here impenetrable forests and swamps reigned, and there was no talk of any capital.
Meanwhile, it was here that the beginning of the unification of the Russian lands was laid, the history of Russia confirms this fact.
According to the most common version, Prince Yury, nicknamed Dolgoruky, who was famous for the skills of a diplomat and commander, founded Moscow in the 12th century.
By the way, for Prince Yuri, the question ofwhy Moscow became the center of the unification of the Russian lands, was not put at all, because at that time feudal fragmentation made itself felt, when every prince was for himself.
This fragmentation entailed a terriblefor the young state of trouble - the invasion of the horde of Batu Khan, who wiped out many glorious Russian cities, including the old Ryazan, from which it was within reach of the small town of Moscow.
The reasons for the rise of Moscow in the period of the Tatar-Mongol yoke
The yoke brought many disasters to Russia:it was a tribute to goods, food, gold and people, which each principality had to pay; constant raids by the Horde; destruction of buildings.
Little Moscow was lucky:it was located in impassable forests (the word “Moscow” itself is translated from the Finno-Ugric language as a “swampy place”), which partly reduced the likelihood of foreign raids.
On the other hand, people in Moscow, whose diplomatic qualities allowed them to negotiate with formidable Horde khans, reigned in Moscow.
The most prominent of these people was the prince.Ivan, nicknamed Kalita. He was able to negotiate with the Horde and get a label for the great reign for himself and his descendants (which gave his bearers the opportunity to rule all the other princes of Russia on behalf of the Khan).
In a difficult struggle Kalita won overanother Russian prince who also claimed this label, Mikhail of Tver. According to the denunciation, Prince Mikhail and his son Alexander, as well as his grandson Fedor, were captured and cruelly executed.
However, not only cunning and intelligence helped the Moscow princes in the struggle for the grand duke's throne, their military achievements played a significant role in this.
Battle of Kulikovo Dmitry Donskoy
Why Moscow became the center of the union of Russianslands? This question is easy to answer if you look at the events of Russian history of 1380. Then the young Moscow Prince Dmitry called on the inhabitants of Russia to fight the Horde invaders. The battle took place on Kulikovo Field and ended with the complete victory of the Russian troops.
True, two years later, to our Fatherland againHorde troops under the leadership of Khan Tokhtamysh attacked, but the victory on the Kulikovo Field and the unification of the Russian lands under the leadership of Moscow are links of one chain. It turns out that without Dmitry Donskoy, his city would never have become the capital of Russia.
Why Moscow became the center of the union of Russian lands: the judgments of historians
Russian historians agree thatMoscow became the center of Russia, most likely not because of its geographical location or other factors, but because rulers, who were prominent politicians, diplomats and military leaders, ruled this city for about 200 years.
It was thanks to the activities of these princes that the Russian lands were united.
После победы на Куликовом поле Московское The principality grew very intensively, absorbing the lands of its neighbors. Already Ivan the Terrible's grandfather, Prince Ivan was able to overcome the resistance of the northern Russian lands - Pskov and Novgorod, after which he appropriated most of their territories.
It was Prince Ivan Vasilievich who could finallyget rid of the Horde yoke, which further strengthened the authority of Moscow. Therefore, the contemporaries of the prince did not have a question about why Moscow became the center of Russia. She deserved it.