What is a verb? The answer to this question can be found in school textbooks, special reference books.
In most languages of the world, the verb is an absolutely independent part of speech. In Russian, he usually answers questions (in an indefinite form) what to do? what to do? Verbs have the form of form, pledge, face, gender, number, inclination and time. A verb can express an action (bug), a state (have fun), an attitude (adore), a property (chill).
The lexico-semantic categories of verbs are differentin different languages. For example, in Russian there is a kind of verb (there are two of them: perfect (read) and imperfect (read)), and in Semitic (eg Maltese) - breed (causative, intense, etc.) or statics-dynamics.
Let us consider some forms of Russian verbs.
One of the important indicators istransitivity-intransitivity of the verb. What is a transitive verb? It is a verb that can be combined with nouns standing in the accusative case without a preposition. Verbs to see, draw, sing will be transitional, because they are able to form phrases with such nouns. Sing (What?) Song, draw (What?) Picture, see (Who?) Relative, see (What?) Phenomenon. These verbs capture the action that passes to the object.
It should be noted that transitive verbs are capable ofalso create word combinations with pronouns or nouns in the genitive case. For example, did not find (What?) Bread, did not see (Whom?) Brother, cut (What?) Cheese. In the last phrase the noun denotes the part of the whole.
An intransitive verb can not create such phrases. Exit - the verb is intransitive.
If a noun has no preposition, it stands in the accusative case, but is not an object, then the verb that is associated with it is not a transitive one. For example: hold on for an hour.
In Russian there are return and irrevocable verbs.
What is a verb? This word is an action and has a postfix -a (-s). For example: to wash, dress up.
The values of the return verbs are different. Words in this category may refer to:
- Actually a return action whose object is its own subject. Examples: Dressing, collecting, gorging.
- Reciprocal action. It is performed by several subjects, which are simultaneously the object of this action. Examples: kissing, hugging, fighting.
- An action that is characteristic of a given subject, but does not have an object. The dog bites, the cow is bitten.
- The state of the subject, which does not depend on the object or subject. To be happy, sad, strained, upset.
- Indirectly-recurrent action, which is carried out in personal interests. Examples are built (= build a house), cleaned (= cleaned).
- An action that can not have a subject (impersonal). Examples: not sleeping, not working.
Returning verbs can form pairs with non-returnable ones. For example, working-working, washing-washing.
Sometimes (very rarely) recurrent and irrevocableverbs can form synonymous pairs. This is possible only in one meaning of many-valued words. For example, the words "knocking" and "knocking" will have the same meaning only in the meaning of "requesting admission." In the sense of "knocking - informing" such a pair of verbs do not form.
Some reflexive verbs do not form pairs with non-returnable ones. Example: to hope, be proud, need.
Usually these verbs are formed from nounsor adjectives (proud - proud, need - need). Usually for this word-formation it is enough to postfix, but sometimes a prefix is added to it to form a new verb: bankrupt - go bankrupt.
What is the verb irrevocable? To put it quite simply, it is a verb that has no postfix -a (-s). Examples: fly, walk, etc.