Surprisingly beautiful mountain landscapes can beSee in these wonderful and unique in its beauty places. The most impressive peaks are the Great Caucasian Range. This is the territory of the highest and largest in length of the mountains of the Caucasus region.
Small Caucasus and valleys (the Riono-Kura depression) represent the complex of Transcaucasia.
Caucasus: a general description
The Caucasus is located between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea in south-west Asia.
This region includes the mountains of the Greater andSmall Caucasus, and a cavity therebetween called Rion Kura-depression, the Black Sea coast and the Caspian Sea, Stavropol hill, a small portion of the Caspian depression (Dagestan) and the valley-Kubano Priazovskaya to the left on the shore of the river Don its mouth portion.
Mountains of the Greater Caucasus have a length of 1500 kilometers, and the highest peak is Elbrus. The length of the mountains of the Lesser Caucasus is 750 km.
A little later in more detail we will consider the Caucasian ridge.
On the western part of the Caucasus borders on the Black andAzov seas, in the east - with the Caspian Sea. In the north, the Eastern European plain stretches, and the border between it and the Caucasian foothills repeats the border between Asia and Europe. The latter passes along the river. Kuma, the bottom of the Kumo-Manych depression, along the Manych and Vostochny Manych rivers, and then along the left bank of the Don.
The southern border of the Caucasus is the Araks River, beyond which are the Armenian and Iranian highlands, and the river. Chorokh. And beyond the river, the mountains of the Pontic peninsula of Asia Minor begin.
Caucasian ridge: description
The most daring people and climbers have long chosen the Caucasian mountain range, which draws extremists from all corners of the planet.
The most important Caucasian range divides into two parts the entire Caucasus: Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus. This mountain range extends from the Black Sea to the shores of the Caspian Sea.
The length of the Caucasus ridge is more than 1200 kilometers.
The site located on the territory of the reserve,represent the highest mountain ranges of the Western Caucasus. And the heights are very diverse. Their marks vary from 260 to more than 3360 meters above sea level.
A perfect combination of a light mild climate and amazing landscapes make this place ideal for active tourist rest at any time of the year.
The main Caucasian ridge on the Sochi territory has the largest peaks: Fisht, Khuko, Lysaya, Venets, Grachev, Pseashkho, Chugush, Malaya Chura and Assara.
Composition of the ridge rocks: limestones and marls.Previously, there was an ocean floor. Throughout the vast massif, one can observe a strongly pronounced folding with numerous glaciers, rugged rivers and mountain lakes.
About the height of the Caucasian range
The tops of the Caucasian ridge are numerous and quite diverse in height.
Эльбрус – высочайшая точка Кавказского горного ridge, which is the highest peak not only in Russia, but also in Europe. The location of the mountain is such that around it are the most diverse nationalities, which gave it their unique names: Oshkhomakho, Alberis, Yalbuz and Mingitau.
The most important mountain in the Caucasus occupies the fifth place on the Earth among the mountains, formed in this way (as a result of the eruption of the volcano).
The height of the most gigantic peak of Russia is five kilometers six hundred and forty-two meters.
In more detail about the highest peak of the Caucasus
The greatest height of the Caucasian ridge isthe highest mountain in Russia. It looks like two cones, between which (distance 3 km from each other) at an altitude of 5200 meters is a saddle. The highest of them has, as already noted, a height of 5,642 meters, a smaller - 5621 meters.
Like all peaks of volcanic origin, Elbrus consists of 2 parts: a 700-meter pedestal of rocks and a cone of bulk (1942 meters) - the result of a volcanic eruption.
The top is covered with snow from a height of approximately 3,500 meters. In addition, there are glaciers, the most famous of which are Small and Big Azau and Terskop.
The temperature at the highest point of Elbrusis -14 ° C. Precipitation here falls almost always in the form of snow and therefore glaciers do not melt. Due to the good visibility of Elbrus peaks from different remote locations and at different seasons, this mountain still has an interesting name - Malaya Antarctica.
It should be noted that for the first time the eastern peak was conquered by mountaineers in 1829, and the western one in 1874.
The glaciers on the top feed the largest rivers of this area - Terek and Kuban.
Central Caucasus: ridges, parameters
Geographically, the Central Caucasusis part of the Greater Caucasus, located between the mountains of Elbrus and Kazbek (in the west and in the east). On this section the length of the Main Caucasian Range is 190 kilometers, and if we take into account the convolutions, about 260 km.
The border of the Russian state passes through the territory of the Central Caucasus. South Ossetia and Georgia are behind it.
In 22 kilometers to the west from Kazbek (easternpart of the Central Caucasus), the Russian border is shifted slightly to the north and passes to Kazbek, skirting the Georgian valley of the Terek (upper part).
In the Central Caucasus, there are 5 parallel ridges (oriented along latitudes):
- The main Caucasian ridge (up to 5203 m high, Shkhara mountain).
- Ridge Lateral (height up to 5642 meters, Mount Elbrus).
- Ridge Rocky (height up to 3646 meters, Mount Karakay).
- Ridge Pasture (up to 1541 meters).
- The Woody Range (900 meters high).
Tourists and climbers mostly visit and storm the first three ridges.
North and South Caucasus
The Great Caucasus, as an object of geography, its ownthe beginning takes from the Taman peninsula, and it ends in the area of Apsheron (peninsula). All the subjects of the Russian Federation and the countries located in this region belong to the Caucasus. However, in terms of location of the territories of the subjects of Russia there is a certain division into two parts:
- The North Caucasus includes the Krasnodar Territory and Stavropol, North Ossetia, the Rostov Region, Chechnya, the Republic of Adygea, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Dagestan and Karachay-Cherkessia.
- The South Caucasus (or Transcaucasus) - Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan.
Elbrus geographically - the mostthe western part of the Central Caucasus. Its territory covers the headwaters of the Baksan River with its tributaries, a site north of Elbrus and the western spurs of Mount Elbrus to the right bank of the Kuban. The largest peak of this region is the famous Elbrus, located to the north and situated in the Side Ridge. The second highest peak is Mount Ushba (4,700 meters).
The region of Elbrus region is famous for its large number of peaks with steep ridges and rocky walls.
The largest glaciers are concentrated in the huge Elbrus glacial complex, which has 23 glaciers (total area - 122.6 sq. Km).
Location of the states in the Caucasus
- The Russian Federation occupies part of the territoryThe Greater Caucasus and its foothills from the Watershed and the Main Caucasian ranges to the north. 10% of the total population lives in the North Caucasus.
- Abkhazia also has territories that areparts of the Greater Caucasus: the region from the Kodori up to the Gagra range, the Black Sea coast between the river. Psou and Inguri, and to the north of Inguri, a small part of the lowlands of the Colchis.
- South Ossetia is located in the central regionGreater Caucasus. The beginning of the territory is the Main Caucasian Range. The territory extends to the south from it, between the Rachin, Suram and Lomis ranges, to the very valley of the Kura River.
- Georgia has the most fertile and inhabited parts.countries in the valleys and lowlands between the ridges of the Caucasus Small and Greater West of the ridge Kakheti. The most mountainous areas of the country are Svaneti, the part of the Greater Caucasus between the Kodori and Suramski ranges. The Georgian territory of the Lesser Caucasus is represented by the Meskhetsky, Samsarsky and Trialetsky ranges. It turns out that all of Georgia is within the Caucasus.
- Azerbaijan is located between the watersheda ridge in the north and the Araks and Kura rivers in the south, and between the Lesser Caucasus and the Kakheti Range and the Caspian Sea. And almost all of Azerbaijan (the Mugan Plain and the Talysh Mountains belong to the Iranian Plateau) is located in the Caucasus.
- Armenia has a part of the territory of the Small Caucasus (just to the east of the Akhuryan River, which is a tributary of the Araks).
- Turkey occupies the southwestern section of the Lesser Caucasus, representing the 4 eastern provinces of this country: Ardahan, Kars, partly Erzurum and Artvin.
The mountains of the Caucasus are both beautiful and dangerous.According to the assumptions of some scientists, there is a possibility that in the next hundred years the volcano (Mount Elbrus) may wake up. And this is fraught with disastrous consequences for the neighboring regions (Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria).
But whatever it is, the conclusion is that there is nonothing more beautiful than mountains. It is impossible to describe the whole magnificent nature of this fabulous mountainous country. In order to experience all this, you should visit these amazingly beautiful places of paradise. They are especially impressive from the height of the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains.