The national system of payment cards of the Russian Federation waswas formed on the basis of Federal Law No. 112 of May 5, 2014. The purpose of its formation is to ensure the availability, efficiency and continuity of the provision of services related to the transfer of funds. Let's consider further how the national system of payment cards of the Russian Federation operates.
The creation of a national payment system beganin 1990. In 1992, interbank settlements were started using STB Card elements. By 1993, the Union Card payment system was formed. By 1999, it had merged 457 banking organizations and their divisions. The system participants issued more than 3,000,000 payment cards. At the end of 1993, the Golden Crown was formed. By 2014, this payment system has brought together about 87 banks that have issued more than 8 million cards. In October 1994, the Coordinating Committee was established. The initiative for its creation belonged to the Moscow GTU of the Bank of Russia. The Committee was formed, first of all, for the timely detection of problems in the interbank settlements that were in effect. This would make it possible to effectively influence the elimination of difficulties, provide an exchange of views with banking organizations concerning information interaction. One of the most important directions of the Committee's activity was the formation and improvement of the plastic card system in Moscow.
Prerequisites for education
Analyzing the world experience, the Moscow State Technical Universitycame to the conclusion that Russia has a unique opportunity, using international practice, especially France, to take a shorter route. To do this, it was necessary to unite the efforts of banking organizations. The Moscow State Technical University saw its role in this process in coordinating the activities of the participants in the formation of a unified map system in Moscow. However, most of the largest banking organizations own a network of branches located in different regions of the Russian Federation. If they were combined, the payment system would acquire a national scale.
Taking into account the current situation, GTUMoscow moved the center of its activities to the executive body of the Bank of Russia. The Working Group consisted of more than twenty specialists. In addition to the Bank of Russia directly, they represented the Moscow State Technical University, the Association of Domestic Banking Organizations. Among the members of the Working Group were the largest associations of the country. These included Sberbank, Agroprombank, Inkombank, SBS-Agro, etc. The Federal agency FAPSI also carried out its activities in the Working Group, while representatives of credit companies were in the executive body in quantitative terms.
Activities of the Working Party
The efforts of the body were focused on the following tasks:
- Development of the draft documentation of the Bank of Russia, which ensures the turnover and use of plastic elements for the performance of monetary transactions in the Russian Federation.
- Development of the national payment system.
The draft documentation was developed and sent to theconsideration to the management of the Bank of Russia. Subsequently (after the termination of the Working Party), it was finalized and approved. This document was the first act through which the National Payment Card System (NSPC) was regulated. Regarding the second issue, the active work of the Working Party fell on mid-1996. At this point, the body went to the stage of developing and forming a pilot project, under which the National Payment Card System was to operate. The NSCP, according to experts from the World Monetary Fund, would require $ 5 million. These funds should have been enough to implement the network. Under the terms of the Monetary Fund, 50% of this amount was allocated directly to them, and the remaining half should attract RF from their sources. The credit companies that were present in the Working Group at the time were ready to finance 50% of the project. They confirmed their agreement with official letters. But, since the leadership of the Bank of Russia decided to concentrate on developing other areas for the development of the payment system, by mid-1996, the functioning of other bodies under the International Committee, as well as the Working Group itself, had been terminated. The management efforts were primarily focused on the formation of projects for the transfer of large sums and massive transactions with money.
In order for the National Payment SystemRussia began to function, a regulatory framework was needed. At the time of the beginning of the development of projects it was not. In this regard, in the early 2000s. a number of laws were passed. However, several important points were lost in the process of approving the norms. At the next stage, the task of financing the project was no longer standing. However, banks could not come to a consensus on who will receive profit from it. A huge market did not want to concede any organization. This sector brought significant revenues from commissions on conducting transactions. While the Russian banks agreed, the market was divided by the international payment systems MasterCard and Visa. Some domestic financial companies have formed partnership groups. Clients of these banks were serviced at ATMs of the whole association. The largest group is the "United Settlement Network". It involves ATMs of about 100 banks.
National payment system of Russia: the next stage
In 2010, the development of the FederalThe law governing the provision of municipal and public services. Its norms stipulated that the National Payment System of Russia would begin to operate, and the processing of domestic transactions abroad would be banned. However, this fact drew the attention of members of the American Embassy in Moscow. It became clear to them that if the bill was left unchanged, MasterCard and Visa would lose the market with revenues of about $ 4 billion. On this occasion the ambassadors composed a dispatch addressed to high-ranking civil servants of America. In the text, the staff recommended that they use meetings with colleagues from the Russian Federation to exert pressure on the latter to change the bill. Thus, guarantees would be provided to protect the interests of US companies, and the possibility of damaging them would be ruled out. In the published act there was no ban on the processing of domestic transactions abroad.
FZ "On the National Payment System"
It was adopted in 2011.FZ "On the National Payment System" describes the network as a set of operators that carry out money transfers. The Law establishes the basic concepts, regulates the provision of relevant services. The normative act defined the rules on which the National Payment System should operate. The structure of the network was formed on the basis of the requirements set forth in the law. At the same time, an order was established on which supervision and coordination would be carried out. However, the Federal Law did not provide for the creation of a system of domestic payment cards and a ban on the processing of Russian transactions abroad.
They were adopted in 2011.These decisions concerned the creation of an electronic universal card, excluding the participation of international MasterCard and Visa systems in this process. At the same time, Sberbank has promised to take measures to neutralize the "lobbyists of these networks in the Russian authorities." By early 2013, the Central Bank had formed a register of operators. All payment systems that worked in Russia were included in this database. Among them were those that were of special social significance. Among them, in particular, were: Contact, VTB and Sberbank networks, Golden Crown, MasterCard, Visa.
In March of the year, the US against the Russian Federation introducedsanctions in connection with inclusion in the composition of the last Crimea. "MasterCard" and "Visa" for the second time in history stopped servicing the cards of a number of domestic banks in some ATMs and outlets of the international network. In this regard, again the question arose that the Russian Federation should have its own national payment system. Russia needs its own network, independent of the state of relations in the world arena. In this regard, the preparation of a number of amendments to the adopted law was started. They were supposed to facilitate the information and infrastructure closure of the process of making money transfers within the Russian Federation. This means that clearing and operating centers - subjects of the National Payment System - should be located directly on the territory of the country. At the same time, the law provides for a ban on granting access to and transferring information to foreign countries for information on intra-state transactions in the Russian Federation.