Today, everyone perfectly knows what USB (USB) is.This is a small connector on the computer's motherboard, laptop, printer, mobile phone, camera, player, and almost everywhere. With its help you can connect to the device not only the charger and drive, but also anything you like, even a warmer for your feet.
What is USB? This is a way to connect and transfer data between different electronic devices (the so-called UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS).
History of the occurrence and basic principles of the USB standard
The first USB standards were developed by the groupsuch largest manufacturers of electronic equipment and software, as Intel, Microsoft, IBM, Philips, NEC and others. It was originally an open standard for manufacturers of any hardware and software.
The main principle of this standard wasuniversality. It was assumed that the universal connector will replace all existing at that time narrow-specific interface connectors of additional external devices of the computer and will spur the development and release of non-standard devices and modules.
The presence of a power line of 5 volts allowed some connected devices not to have an external power source.
Simplicity of use assumed the possibility of hot-plugging (or "plug and play"), which does not require the installation of specific boards, drivers, or even shutdown of the PC.
Another very important principle of the standardis the ability of some devices to act as nodes for connecting other devices, performing the so-called hub function. For example, the ability to connect the camera to some printers, a mouse to the keyboard designed for this, and so on.
YUSB is primarily an opportunity to connect topersonal computer various electronic devices for data transfer and synchronization (keyboards, mice, flash drives, telephones, players, cameras, cameras, printers, scanners, external storage devices and CD-ROMs, and much more.)
Since its interface contains a power line 5Volt, this primarily provides the possibility of certain connected devices to abandon external energy sources, and secondly - to use the USB for other than intended purpose, and for charging mobile phones, players, mobile speakers with batteries, flashlights, etc.
There was also a separate category of USB-devices like luminaires, fans, self-heating cups, which use the port only as a power source.
For today there are 3 versions.
USB 1.1 is almost not used because of the small data transport speed - no more than 12 Mbit / s. In the modern world it is used purely for compatibility.
USB 2.0 is currently the leader.Guarantees the information transport speed up to 30 MB / s. For most modern devices (except for external hard drives) this speed is enough.
YUSB 3.0 belongs to the last generation and provides a data transport speed of up to 500 MB / s. Given that the processing speed of modern hard drives is three times lower, this version has sufficient speed gaps to remain relevant and in-demand.
USB 3.0 and 2.0: types
USB 2.0, type A is the most popular.Most of the devices (keyboards, mice, flash drives and similar) are equipped with this port. It was created in the mid-nineties. Reliability, which makes it possible to withstand quite a large number of connections and remain whole and workable - this is the main advantage of this port. In the connector there is protection against incorrect connection. But the dimensions do not allow to use it for portable devices.
USB 2.0, type B is less popular.Classical type B - the only one in the entire line has a square shape. Because of its relatively large size, it is used in various large-scale stationary systems (scanners, printers and other devices of different types).
The emergence of a huge number of smallportable devices contributed to the fact that the USB connectors were miniaturized and turned into a mini version of 2.0 B. The popularity of the device was brought by the spread of portable hard drives and handheld computers. Mini USB, type B has five contacts, one of which is not involved. However, despite the advantages of miniaturization, the lack of a connector was low reliability. There is also a Mini USB, type A. It is not actually used and differs from B only in form.
The Micro USB B connector is essentially the same as the MiniUSB B, but upgraded and characterized by a relatively small size. It is thanks to the dimensions that it is perfect for using it in modern thin gadgets. Upgraded attachment of the plug does not allow it to loosen and fall out of the socket.
Since the beginning of 2011 Micro USB B has been adopted asUniversal standard for the chargers of most tablets, mobile phones and other miniature devices. There is also type A. It occurs quite rarely and differs only in a rectangular shape.
The most up-to-date standard is USB 3.0 provides the ability to achieve high data transport speed. Additional contacts make it possible to speed up the transfer of information, which led to the modernization of most third-party devices. External changes USB A touched only the color of the core - now it's blue. In other respects compatibility of USB 3.0 and USB 2.0 A remains unchanged. This means that the modules have cross-compatibility.
USB 3.0, type B is designed for use in voluminous remote or external devices with high power and performance, as well as in some stationary hard drives. In many respects the port is unlike its predecessor, although it inherited the traditional features and common features of Micro USB 2.0. Compact, reliable, with a quality connection, it allows you to transfer much faster information. The connector is equipped with ultra-fast external hard drives and SSD.
Also recently, a subspecies of USB appeared, like Micro 3.0 or 3.1, type C. The configuration of contacts is similar to type B, but differs in the form of the connection.
People occasionally get confused in the USB mini connectors and Micro- in fact, they really are very similar. However, the main difference is that Mini USB has a slightly larger size, and Micro is equipped with small latches on the back side. In the rest they are identical.
Why Micro USB
The Micro USB connector is a miniature, fairly robust and currently the most common implementation of the standard.
Thanks to the improved fastening withspring-loaded snaps he firmly holds in the nest, does not stagger and does not fall out. To date, Micro USB is the universal standard for synchronization cables and chargers for mobile equipment and other gadgets of most manufacturers in the world. Wherever you are, everywhere the chance to meet a micro USB cable or similar charger is much higher than any other type of gadget. Rare devices, such as Apple products, have their own unique connector, unlike this one. However, there are a lot of adapters that allow you to connect any Apple Micro USB cable.
Variations in the execution of the device
Depending on the manufacturer and the destination, there are several options for connecting cables with Micro USB.
The manufacturer can vary the length of the cable,thickness and insulation material, the presence of a screen, additional core or ferrite filters at their discretion, and also based on the purpose of the cable and its cost.
First of all, the cables with Micro USB are differentdifferent end pieces. On the one side of the cable is type B, and on the other can be type A (both standard and OTG - the so-called mother), Micro, type B (also available in one of two variations), Mini and virtually any of the existing variations connector of the corresponding standard.
Very rarely, narrow-specific variations of the use of the Micro USB cable are simply possible for transferring power or certain data. This is facilitated by its popularity and accessibility.
Micro USB Pinout
Assigning wires to a USB cable:
- Red - VBUS - (+ 5V, Vcc) + 5V, 500 mA dc relative to GND.
- White - D- (-Data).
- Green - D + (+ Data).
- Black - GND - -5V or ground.
There are 5 contacts in the Micro, Mini USB connector:
- Red - VBUS.
- Green - D +.
- ID - in connector type B is not used, or is shorted with GND for the possibility of OTG operation.
- Black - GND.
In some cases, the Micro USB cable may contain braid, shielding or bare wire (can be soldered to the connector housing), this wire is not numbered.
Variety of USB adapters
USB-adapter - a compact device that converts the standard USB in the interface of another standard. There are models that convert in the opposite direction.
The main task of the adapters is to providecompatibility. There is always the possibility of a situation where you need to connect a device with a non-standard interface or connector to a computer, smartphone or tablet. In this situation, the USB-adapters will come to the rescue, the kinds and standards of which are very numerous for today.
There is a specific kind of adapter,equipped with separate power schemes and channel separation - YUSB-hub. It allows you to simultaneously connect several power-consuming devices, sometimes even multi-types, to one port on a laptop computer or other mobile device due to the fact that type A, B, Mini, Micro USB pinouts are reduced to one standard.
Advantages and disadvantages of the MicroUSB connector
Considering all of the above, we can summarize: Micro USB - this is the logical conclusion of the evolution of the standard.
Among the advantages are: miniature, relative reliability, universality and prevalence.
But strangely enough, the main advantage was the main drawback. Miniaturization has reduced the reliability of the connector, especially in the areas of attachment and soldering.
However, wherever you are, find a Micro USB cable to recharge your favorite tablet or drop a couple of photos on your PC from the phone, it will not be difficult.