There is a technology for studying, describing anddesign of specialties - professionography. Studies of this kind are conducted taking into account socio-economic and psychological requirements. In this process, a professiogram is drawn up. This is a kind of result of the study. In the text below you can find out what this term means, why it is necessary to conduct such studies, and what methods are used.
In psychology of labor there is a section -professionography. This term comes from two words. "Grafo" in the translation sounds like "writing", "profession" - as a "permanent specialty." What is the purpose of this field? Most often, the result of research (professiogram) is information about the existing or projected specialty. But in a number of cases the result of the study includes intermediate data on the current type of activity with possible changes. The study itself and its result - the professionalogram - is the obligatory stages of compiling all scientific works in the psychology of ergonomics, labor and engineering. The object of study are all aspects of the labor process. Everyone can get acquainted with the classification of professions according to the works of well-known psychologists KK Platonov, IP Titova and EA Klimov.
How did the concept become applied?
Professions appeared in the 20s of the XIX century.Then Soviet psychotechnicians worked intensively to create rules and methods for analyzing work activity. Summing up the results of these studies, scientists have developed a section in the psychology of labor - professionography. This definition includes operations for the study, psychological assessment and design of the study specialty. In addition, the signs of objects that are the main components of the work process, namely: the subject, the subject, the task, the tools and the working conditions, are necessarily worked out here.
Classification by species
Each professiogram is a document that hasits purpose, time of compilation, volume. In accordance with this, as well as on the availability of similar data, the research results are systematized. In addition, the following codification is distinguished:
1. Information. Here consultative work is carried out with people who have not yet decided on their choice of profession. This technique consists in a brief and systematic description of the required characteristics.
2. Diagnostic. This type of research is used in the case,when it is necessary to find out the reasons for low productivity, production of poor-quality products, staff turnover, high accident rates and injuries, and so on. For this purpose, the study of legal, technical, psychological, as well as hygienic characteristics of labor. As practice shows, the definition of these indicators is of great importance for the final result of the work.
3. Prognostic. This principle of analysis bears recommendations for improving professional skills and skills in order to improve career growth.
Ways to create
Various schemes have been developed, in accordance withwhich form one or another professiogram. An example of the simplest model was offered by the psychologist EA Klimov. It is called the "specialty formula". The essence of the method is that all professions must be subdivided according to the basic subjects. In addition, the interaction of a person with these objects must be taken into account. For example, "the individual is nature," "the subject is technology," "man is an artistic image," and so on. Also here the goal of labor, the use of means of activity and the most favorable production conditions are highlighted.
To identify the qualities that should bethis or that specialty, labor actions are subdivided into operations. Klimov, for this purpose, recommends special emphasis on the most important working qualities.
In any case, with the correct composition of the profession, it is necessary to answer a number of questions. Namely:
1. What actions does a person commit? In this paragraph, you can use the method of observation or introspection.
2. How does he do them? That is, it is necessary to provide a detailed analysis of the actions.
3. For what purpose does a person perform these operations?
4. What means are used in the labor process? This paragraph should reflect the skills that an individual must possess to comply with the technological process.