European art of the late 19th century wasis enriched by the emergence of a modernist trend in painting. Later, his influence spread to music and literature. It was called "Impressionism", because it was based on the artist's subtlest impressions, images and moods.
Origins and history of occurrence
Several young artists in the second half19 th century joined together in the group. They had a common goal and the same interests. The main thing for this company was working in nature, without the walls of the workshop and various deterrents. In their paintings, they sought to convey all the sensuality, the impression of the play of light and shadow. Landscapes and portraits reflected the unity of the soul with the universe, with the surrounding world. Their paintings are the true poetry of colors.
In 1874 there was an exhibition of this groupartists. Claude Monet's Landscape "Impression. Sunrise "stopped the view of the critic, who in his response for the first time called these creators impressionists (from the French impression -" impression ").
Impressions of the birth of the style impressionism,whose paintings of representatives will soon be incredibly successful, have become works of the Renaissance. The work of the Spaniards Velazquez, El Greco, the English Turner, Constable unreservedly affected the French, who were the ancestors of impressionism.
Bright characters of style in France were Pissarro, Manet, Degas, Sisley, Cezanne, Monet, Renoir and others.
Philosophy of impressionism in painting
Artists who wrote in this style, did not putbefore him the task of drawing public attention to social problems and disasters. In their works there are no plots for the evil of the day, one can not get moralizing or notice human contradictions.
Impressionist paintings are aimed attransfer of momentary mood, development of color solutions of mysterious nature. In works there is a place only to the positive beginning, gloominess bypassed impressionists by the party.
In fact, the Impressionists did not bother to think through the plot and details. The main factor was not what to draw, but how to portray and convey your mood.
Technique of writing pictures
There is a huge difference between the academic manner of drawing and the technique of the Impressionists. They simply refused many methods, some changed beyond recognition. Here are the innovations they made:
- Refused the contour. There was a replacement for smears - small and contrasting.
- Stop using the palette to mix the colors. Colors were chosen that complement each other and do not require merging to obtain a certain effect. For example, yellow - purple.
- They stopped drawing in black.
- Completely refused to work in the workshops. Wrote only on nature, so that it was easier to capture the moment, image, feeling.
- Used only paints having a good covering ability.
- Do not wait until the new layer has dried. Fresh smears were applied immediately.
- Created cycles of works to track changes in light and shadow. For example, "Haystacks" by Claude Monet.
Разумеется, не все художники выполняли в точности Impressionist style. Edouard Manet's paintings, for example, never participated in joint exhibitions, and he himself positioned himself as a stand-alone artist. Edgar Degas worked only in the workshops, but the quality of his works did not harm it.
Representatives of French Impressionism
The first exhibition of works of the Impressionists is dated1874 year. After 12 years, their last exposition took place. The first work in this style can be called "Breakfast on the grass" brush E. Manet. This picture was presented in the "Salon of the outcast". She was greeted unfriendly, because she was very different from the academic canons. That's why Manet becomes a figure around which a circle of followers of this stylistic trend gathers.
Unfortunately, contemporaries did not appreciate the style of Impressionism. Paintings and artists existed in disagreement with official art.
Gradually Claude Monet comes to the forefront of the group of painters, who will later become their leader and the main ideologue of impressionism.
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Creativity of this artist can be characterizedas an anthem of impressionism. It was he who first refused to use black in his paintings, arguing that even shadows and night have other tones.
The world in the paintings of Monet is a vague outline,long strokes, looking at which you can feel the whole spectrum of the game colors of day and night, seasons, the harmony of the sublunar world. Only an instant that was snatched from the life stream, in the understanding of Monet and there is impressionism. His paintings do not seem to have materiality, they are all imbued with rays of light and streams of air.
Claude Monet created amazing works: "Train Station Saint-Lazare", "Rouen Cathedral", the cycle "Bridge Charing Cross" and many others.
Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Creations Renoir create the impressionunusual lightness, airiness, ethereality. The plot was born as if by chance, but it is known that the artist carefully thought through all the stages of his work and worked from morning till night.
Отличительной особенностью творчества О.Renoir is the application of a glaze, which is possible only when writing oil paintings. Impressionism in the works of the artist is manifested in every stroke. A person is perceived by him as a particle of nature itself, so there are so many pictures with nude nature.
The favorite occupation of Renoir was the depiction of a womanin all its attractive and attractive beauty. Portraits occupy a special place in the artist's creative life. "Umbrellas", "Girl with a fan", "Breakfast rowers" - only a small part of the amazing collection of paintings by Auguste Renoir.
Georges Sera (1859-1891)
The process of creating paintings by Sulfur was associated with the scientific justification of the theory of color. The light-air medium was drawn on the basis of the dependence of the main and additional tones.
Despite the fact that J.Sulfur is the representative of the final stage of impressionism, and his technique is much different from the founders, he also creates with the help of smears an illusory representation of the subject form, to consider and see which can only be at a distance.
Masterpieces of creativity can be called the paintings "Sunday Day", "Kankan", "Model".
Representatives of Russian impressionism
Russian impressionism arose almost spontaneously, mixed in itself many phenomena and methods. However, the basis, like the French, was a full-scale vision of the process.
In the Russian Impressionism, although they were preservedThe features of the French, but the features of the national nature and state of mind have made significant changes. For example, the vision of snow or northern landscapes was expressed through unusual techniques.
In Russia, few artists worked in the style of impressionism, their paintings attract views to this day.
Impressionist period can be distinguished in the work of Valentin Serov. His "Girl with Peaches" is the brightest example and the standard of this style in Russia.
Paintings of Konstantin Korovin conquer theirfreshness and harmony of pure colors. The main theme of this artist's work is the image of a man in nature. "Northern Idyll", "In a Boat", "Fedor Shalyapin" - bright milestones of K. Korovin's activity.
Impressionism in modern times
Now this direction in art has received a new life. In this style, several artists write their pictures. Modern Impressionism exists in Russia (Andre Cohn), in France (Laurent Parselle), in America (Diana Leonard).
André Cohn is the brightest representativenew impressionism. His paintings, written in oil, amaze with their simplicity. The artist sees the beautiful in ordinary things. The Creator interprets many objects through the prism of movement.
Watercolor works by Laurent Parselier knows the whole world. His series of works "Strange World" was released in the form of postcards. Magnificent, bright and sensual, they are breathtaking.
As in the 19th century, currently strongside artists remains plein air painting. Thanks to her, impressionism will live forever. Pictures of famous artists are still inspiring, impressive and inspiring.