Every word in Russian hasnominative value. This helps to relate speech to reality and express thoughts. In addition to the basic meaning, most words are included in a certain associative series and have an additional symbolic meaning, which is most often portable. Such a lexical property is actively used by poets and writers to create works of art, and this phenomenon in the Russian language has been called the figure of speech and literary trails. They give the text expressiveness and help more accurately convey your thoughts.
Types of artistic and visual aids
Among the tropes, epithets, comparisons,metaphors, personifications, metonymy, periphrasis, synecdoche, litote, hyperbole. The ability to see them in the text of a work of art makes it possible to understand the author's ideological intent, to enjoy the richness of the magnificent Russian language. And the use of tropes in his own speech is a sign of a person who is literate, cultured, who can speak accurately and expressively.
How can you identify in the text and learn how to use literary paths yourself?
Table with examples from art works
Let's see how recognized poets and writers do this.
Adjective, less often noun, adverb, gerund, used in figurative meaning and denoting an essential feature of the subject
"And blue eyes bottomless bloom ... "(A. Blok)
Turnover with alliances AS, BUDTO, AS BUDTO, WORD or words similar, it is similar; noun in the instrumental case; adjective or adverb in comparative degree. The essence is in assimilation
"The block seemed to me ... expensive ..., as in a spring bush a nightingale ..."(K. Balmont)
Based on the transfer of value by similarity
"... fire soul ... full"(M. Lermontov)
Animation of the phenomena of nature, objects
«The azure sky laughs ..."(F. Tyutchev)
Transfer of value by contiguity
«Scolded by Homer, Theocritus... "(A. Pushkin), i.e. their works
Implies the transfer of the value based on the ratio in quantity: single instead of plural and vice versa
"To him … and the beast nedet... "(A. Pushkin)
«Muzhichok ... with a fingernail»(N.Nekrasov)
«From the wings of a mosquito he made himself two benches"(K. Aksakov)
The name of an object or phenomenon through a significant, well recognizable attribute
"Love you, Peter's creation... "(A. Pushkin), i.e. St. Petersburg
Thus, literary trails are a table infully reflects their essential signs - the strength to determine even a person who does not have a special education. It is necessary only to understand their essence. To do this, let us examine in more detail those means of expressiveness, which usually cause the greatest difficulties.
Metaphor and personification
In contrast to the comparison in which there aretwo objects or phenomena - the original and the one that is taken for comparison, these literary paths contain only the second. In metaphor, similarity can be expressed in color, volume, form, purpose, etc. Here are examples of such use of words in a figurative sense: "moon clock wooden","noon is breathing".
Impersonation differs from metaphor in that it is a more detailed image: “Suddenly the wind rose and thrashed all night".
Metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis
These literary paths are often confused with the metaphor described above. To avoid such errors, it should be remembered that the manifestation of contiguity in metonymy can be as follows:
- content and what includes it: "eat a plate»;
- author and his work: "well remembered all Gogol»;
- action and instrument for its commission: "villages were doomed to swords»;
- the subject and material from which it was made: "porcelain at the exhibition»;
- place and people in it: "the city no longer slept".
The synecdoc usually means a quantitative correlation between objects and phenomena: "here everyone is aiming at the Napoleons".
Sometimes writers and poetsexpressiveness and creation of imagery replace the name of an object or phenomenon by indicating its essential sign. Peripheral helps also to exclude repeats and to link sentences in the text. Consider these literary trails with examples: "glistening steel"- a dagger,"the author of "Mumu"- I. Turgenev,"old woman with a scythe"- death.