Pear is the favorite fruit of most people.However, in most cases it concerns its southern varieties. In the central parts of Russia, and even more so to the north, such luxurious fruits can not be found. However, modern breeders offer the villagers very interesting options. Despite the climatic features of the region, you will be able to grow stunning pears that will have a very attractive appearance. Especially beautiful looks on the branches of the pear Academic. Description, photos, reviews - this is exactly what interests us today. Fruits differ not only in large sizes, but also in bright blush.
On the market this variety has been around for a long time, soit will not be difficult to find seedlings in specialized stores. But let's take a closer look at what the pear is Academic. Description, photos, reviews - this is all useful information that will allow the villager to avoid most mistakes and achieve an excellent harvest.
So, this is a sort of autumn ripening period, whichobtained in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Timiryazev. The fruits are large, 130-150 g, with a maroon color. What is noteworthy, they do not get scared at all.
Until now, it has not been accurately established.However, the characteristics so interested breeders that in 1997 the samples were taken for state strain testing, after which the grade was recommended for use in the Central regions. However, according to various data, it can be judged that the pear Academic is also successfully grown to the north more successfully. The description, photos, reviews that we will consider today, emphasize that the winter hardiness of the variety is above average, which allows it to survive even in a rather harsh climate. For Russia this is an extremely important indicator. But his yield is average. And this despite the fact that the tree itself is very large. But the fruits are universal, perfectly go to the couch and for direct consumption in food, as well as for making compotes, for drying and preserving.
Features of the variety
This plays a big role in choosing a place forplanting, so pay special attention to this characteristic. The crown shape is wide-pyramidal, compact and dense. But the type of fruiting specialists call mixed. Fruits are found both medium and large. Most often, their mass reaches 150 g, if the fruit is tied up a little, it can grow to 250 g. The shape of the pear is broad, tuberous. The color is yellow, but as it ripens, intense blush spreads through it.
How delicious is the purchased pear,ripe under the hot sun and brought to our stores, so can disappoint the wooden fruit torn from the tree in your garden. However, in most cases this is due solely to the fact that the summer resident did not wait for full maturing. This differs and pear Academic. Description, photos, reviews will allow you to avoid such errors.
So, depending on the region, you canCollect fruits early in the fall, send them to a stalk, ripen, or allow them to hang on the tree until full ripeness. Ready-made flesh is white, juicy, dense and semi-oily. The taste is very pleasant, sweet and sour. The aroma is rather weak, although the tremendous taste completely compensates for this deficiency.
Collected fruits can be used in any wayduring the whole year. This is remarkable for the pear cultivar Academic. The description makes it possible to believe that it is dried and rolled up with great success in the form of compote. These are extremely useful preparations, since ripe fruits contain fructose and organic acids, pectins and tannins, enzymes and phytoncides, flavonoids and vitamins. Among the latter, researchers identify a large number of A, E, C, P, PP, B. In addition, the pear is a source of trace elements such as iron and calcium, potassium and iodine, copper and magnesium, molybdenum and fluorine.
Tasty and fragrant fruits help to strengthenimmune system, they have a restorative effect. Pears have antitussive and antipyretic effect. They are useful for the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract, help stimulate the liver and kidneys. A decoction of pears or compotes helps to fight inflammatory diseases and urolithiasis. Experts recommend eating pears more often to people with excessive body weight.
Choose a place for planting
Let's talk now about howhis dacha site to grow such a miracle as the pear Academic. Description, photos, reviews, landing - this is all the necessary information that you need to own. First of all, before you bring a seedling home, you must definitely choose a place for it and prepare a planting pit.
So, this variety requires excellent illumination.Otherwise, the tree will grow, but the fruits on it will be small, and each of them will have a lower sugar content. Go ahead, we need to assess the possibility of flooding the site. The fact is that the Academic pear (a description of the variety, photos, reviews fully confirm this) absolutely does not tolerate water stagnation. If the site is located in a hollow, you will have to create a mound or additional drainage. It is desirable that the groundwater level was at least 2 meters.
Choose the soil
And what composition of the soil does pears prefer?Academic? The description (the advantages of this variety lies in its versatility) emphasizes that in almost any area a tree will quickly start growing. However, on clay soil, it will practically not develop. In this case, you need to make a good landing pit with a depth of at least a meter. Acidity should be weak, no more than 6. Sandy-chernozem soil is best for this variety. If it contains a lot of sand, then the tree will develop well only if it is regularly applied fertilizer.
Selection of seedlings
Full description of the pear varieties Akademicheskayaemphasizes its high resistance to diseases and good survival in almost all conditions. But for this you need to buy a quality sapling. Pay attention to the state of his bark, it should be flat and smooth, without mechanical damage and rot. The root system is a separate topic. Roots should be well developed, not overdried, covered with earthy lump. Planting pits with organic and mineral fertilizers should be prepared in the garden plot. If the soil is highly acidic, then lime may be required.
Saplings of a pear Academic in a midlandRussia, and especially in the north, is best planted in the spring, so that they have a better chance of settling down and withstanding the harsh cold. It is impossible to be late with this, because with the beginning of the period when the leaves bloom, the survival rate of plants worsens and leads to a weakening of their growth. Therefore, it is necessary to have time before the kidneys swell.
A strong stake should be driven into the landing pit.He will keep the sapling until he independently hardens. The seedling is arranged in such a way that the root neck is above the level of the soil, about 3-5 centimeters. For better rooting, you need to water a sapling well. To do this, use at least 10 liters of water. Now the seedling is covered with earth and again watered. Bottom circle must be mulched.
Application of fertilizers
Academic pear - winter-hardy variety, whichvery sensitive to nutrition and soil composition. Bottom circle must be moistened during flowering and fruiting, so that the introduced substances can be easily absorbed by the root system. The frequency of dressings depends on the condition of the tree, as well as the initial fertility of the soil.
Usually gardeners are guided by the length of the annualincrement. The norm for an adult tree is the growth of annual shoots by 40 cm. If this indicator is not reached, then fertilizer should be applied. Usually, the time comes in the second year of life. Fertilizer is applied in spring and autumn, but during the summer this procedure can also be performed. Organics need to make at least once every three years. Mineral need to make at least once a year.
This is also a very important point, because if youleave all the branches, then the forces of the tree does not remain to grow a large number of fruits. Proper pruning allows you to form a crown in such a way that all the forces go exactly on ripening pears. It is not necessary to carry out mass pruning of wood in one day. An experienced gardener, on the contrary, eliminates the pear from unnecessary branches in several stages.
The correct pruning scheme looks likeapproximately as follows. For the first time forming trimming is performed. That is, you create the correct crown. In the spring you need to do sanitization, removing dried or affected branches. Produce it before the plants begin the growing season. Finally, the last type of pruning is performed in early April. It is called supportive. In this case, parts of large branches are cut off so that there is no overload by the fruits. In order to master this procedure, you need to try it at least once in practice.