Balanced, high-grade food -an indispensable condition for the normal development of the infant's systems and organs. It is necessary that children receive a certain number of macronutrients (fats, proteins, carbohydrates), vitamins and minerals daily. Due to this they will grow smart, cheerful and healthy. How to organize a correct diet for children up to one year? In this issue, we'll figure it out.
Types of food
There are 3 types of feeding of babies up to a year:mixed, artificial and natural. Each is characterized by a specific diet for the child. Consider the features of different types of kids' menus. General schemes refer to healthy infants. Norms of food consumption in case of violations are established by the doctor.
The child at artificial feeding receives a milk adapted mixture. In his diet can be breast milk, with no more than 20% of the total volume of food.
Such feeding requires strict adherencechild nutrition. In a month and later between meals, the interval should be at least 3 hours. It must be maintained, since the mixture is digested much more slowly than the milk of the mother.
Infant on natural feeding up to 6months is fed exclusively by mother's milk. In accordance with the recommendations of WHO after this age, its diet gradually introduces complementary foods (solid food). In the daily volume of food, the proportion of breast milk decreases, although it remains high. EO Komarovsky, a popular pediatrician for children, insists that the introduction of complementary foods is not advisable at an earlier time.
Most specialists with naturalFeeding is advised to feed the baby freely, on demand. This approach makes it possible to maintain lactation at the required level. After 2-3 months with free feeding, a flexible diet of the child appears: meals take place every 2-2.5 hours.
In this case, the share of maternal milk is20% or more of the daily ration. The diet with this type of food depends only on the level of lactation of a woman. If the basis is breast milk, then you need to bring the schedule to the free. If the mixture predominates, then the diet should be organized by the hour.
How to calculate the required amount of food?
First 7 days
In the first week of life, the calculation of the daily volume of breast milk or a mixture is carried out in one of 2 ways:
- Finkelstein's formula.To determine the daily amount of a mixture or milk for a baby whose weight is not less than 3.2 kg, its age in days should be multiplied by 70. In case the child's weight is up to 3.2 kg, the number of his days of life should be multiplied by 80.
- Formula Zaitsevoy. It is necessary to multiply the body mass of the baby at birth by the number of days of his life, and from this number to find 2%. As a result, you get the right amount of food per day.
Regardless of the formula used, the volume obtained must be divided by the number of feedings. Thus, you can find out the volume of a mixture or milk, sufficient for one meal.
Older than 7 days
To calculate the amount of nutrition the newbornAfter 7 days and up to a year, a technique is used for Czerny and Geibenr or bulk. It should be understood that the first method allows you to determine the required total volume of fluid per day, including milk, mixture, juice, water, tea, etc. At the same time, you need to take into account the child's age and weight.
At the present moment this technique is appliedis rare, because it is not designed for toddlers with increased weight, which is now born more and more. The most rational is the three-dimensional method.
Introduction of complementary foods
There are special WHO instructions that contain information on the order of introduction of the first year of the life of food into the diet. Below are the tips with monthly breakdown.
Каши следует готовить на воде.The diet in 6 months, like his diet, is gradually changing. Since that time, you need to add vegetable oil in cereals and mashed potatoes. Initially, add 1 drop, bringing the volume gradually to a teaspoon. In 7 months the butter is introduced into the diet. First 1 gram, on average later - 10 grams. It is advisable to add it to the finished porridge.
Such a scheme of complementary feeding will suit children atnatural feeding. If the baby gets the mixture, you can enter solid food from 5 months, because his body badly needs minerals and vitamins for full development. The same table is used, although all the lines are moved for one month.
Each new product must be given to the child infirst half of the day. The amount should be increased gradually, bringing it to the norm for age and constantly monitoring the reaction of the baby's body. In a week, crumbs should introduce one new dish. In case there was a failure in the gastrointestinal tract or an allergy, the product from the menu should be cleaned for about a month.
Dietary regime in 1 year and older
Lactation can be maintained even ifmy mother went to work. In this case, the frequency of application of the baby to the breast will be significantly reduced, although the baby will still receive valuable elements. If there is a need to stop lactation, doctors are advised not to do this during the illness of the child, when his body is weakened, and in the summer, because at this time there is a very high probability of infecting the baby with intestinal infection.
The diet of a child in 1 year is not different fromthe previous month, though slightly increased portions. For breakfast and snack it should be fed puree from vegetables or porridge. Lunch and dinner must be made nourishing. You can offer marshmallows, marmalade, pastille for dessert, while it is better to choose tea, water, kissel, mors or compote as a drink.
Terms, volumes and products
The transition of the child to "adult" food - absolutelynew in his life stage. But he is much more exciting for his mother. Than in the first place to feed? How volume change? How to prepare food? How to make the first menu tasty?
The diet and requirements for the introduction of products inrecent years have changed significantly. Pediatricians do not insist on the need to give children cottage cheese from four months and juices from two. But the recommendations that are proposed by WHO, and those that are fixed by the provisions of the Ministry of Health of Russia, vary significantly. Thus, the latter allow the introduction of complementary foods at 4 months, while all is carried out at a rapid pace.
Meal for 1 year
The power mode is still on time orby the hour. At the same time, the recommendations of the Ministry of Health of our country suggest a schedule of complementary feeding for children up to a year that requires 7 months in their diet to use porridge, vegetables, meat and cottage cheese, fruit purees, juices. This schedule does not correspond to WHO recommendations, where it is clearly noted that only at the age of six months the correction of the diet is carried out. And only for individual indications and in individual cases, which include a critical lag in development and weight gain, there is a sense in the early change in the diet of the baby.
From seven to twelve months are improvedchewing skills. The kid learns to move the tongue of food to the teeth, to bite, to remove her lips from the spoon. At this time, it is advised to change the consistency of dishes, keeping the previously selected dietary regime of the child (in a year it should also be left unchanged). They are served chopped, mashed, in a form that is convenient for eating pens.
Only after a year there is stability of workjaws, while the chewing movements acquire a rotational, adult character. The child at this time can be completely transferred to a family meal.
Method of introducing products
We need to understand how to put into practice the recommendations mentioned above. Consider a technique designed for 90 days, which was established by the World Health Organization.
WHO advises to use zucchini as the first food of the baby. The vegetable is served mashed, boiled. The next product - cauliflower, then - broccoli.
Так, на введение в рацион ребенка 3-х овощей, у it will take you about twenty-one days. Next, how you bring each product to the norm recommended by age, you can mix them in any desired proportions, and also offer the child a multicomponent or one-component puree.
Lure of porridge
It can be started after the vegetables are introduced. In this case, children with lag in weight gruel are recommended to feed initially.
The period of introduction of porridges in the baby's food takes 3of the week. The child at this time is 7.5 months, therefore, it is too early to introduce meat into his diet. The World Health Organization advises at this stage to include in the lure of the baby new products from cereals and vegetables.
The next vegetable lure is a pumpkin that hassweet taste, therefore, she likes babies. Kashki with her is a classic of children's cuisine, but the combination of a new product should only be with vegetables that are identical in structure.
After the pumpkin was introduced, you canto start lure fruit. In the middle of the 7th month it is time to introduce the baby to an apple. It should be understood that the recommendation of doctors to enter this product at this time is simple. Fruits have a bright, pronounced taste. By a child, he can be perceived with much greater enthusiasm than the neutral taste of zucchini. Then the crumb, who tried not fruits for the first time, but fruits, can simply refuse them.
The next step by the end of the 7th month may be the introduction of some new cereal. At this time, the baby's digestive tract is ripe for taking millet porridge.
Introduction of meat
The diet of a child at eight months is 4 typescereals in the form of dairy-free cereals, an apple and four vegetables. In this period, you should enter into the menu meat, carefully cooked, milled twice in a meat grinder or grated. WHO recommends the use of rabbit fillets in the form of the first meat, as this is the most non-fat and least allergenic product.
Meat product by a child is rarely immediately accepted.You can mix small portions with porridge. In this case, the child will not notice it in the initial minimum doses. When the volume significantly increases, the taste of meat will seem familiar to the crumb, and it is already much less likely to refuse it.
Expansion of complementary fruit
Fruits are a source of vitamins, and stimulate the work of the intestines. After the introduction of meat to normalize digestion, it is recommended to introduce the following step prunes.
So the child has a rich breakfast of fruits and cereals, as well as a rich lunch of meat and vegetable puree.
Expansion of complementary foods by meat
Another product will be a low-fat turkey fillet that will make an excellent alternative to a rabbit.
The child is already familiar with a fairly largequantity of products, any new ones are used all also during the 2nd breakfast in the 1st half of the day. Because of this, there is a periodic correction of the usual menu for lunch and breakfast, but this is necessary to notice in time a reaction to any new component of the diet when it appears.
Expansion of fruit complementary foods
Another kind of fruit is a pear.But not necessarily it, you can enter any fruit that matches your area, for example, peach, apricot. Or try to feed the baby with a banana, which children usually eat with joy.
The first 90 days, as it became clear from the article above,very saturated. Do not be discouraged if you do not "fit" into the schedule, or the child refuses food to eat in this amount. Your current task is to change its menu with new tastes to get to know them. Therefore, in the diet every week there is a new product.
Similarly, later onother kinds of complementary foods recommended for the age of crumbs. New is only offered for breakfast. When the dairy products are included in the diet, the child has an afternoon snack, where the fruit puree will leave. Accordingly, the diet in a year will be slightly adjusted. Cookies and croutons are offered as a snack during the day. After the introduction of fish it will be necessary to alternate it with meat, not offering them in one day.